National Renaissance in India is a term used to mark the period of cultural and intellectual revival which took place from the late 18th century to the early 20th century.
This movement is led by various reformers. The important reformers are Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Vivekananda etc. These reformers sought to modernize India while also preserving its cultural heritage.
Characteristics of the National Renaissance
A renewed interest in Indian culture and tradition.
Focus on modernization and social reform.
Abolition of caste, Sati, female infanticide etc.
Encouraging Window remarriage and Female education.
A rise of a new national literature and art.
Development of new educational institutions.
Brahmo Samaj was founded by Raja Rammohan Roy in 1828 at Calcutta. Its idea was to purify Hinduism and preach monotheism.
In 1815, Raja Rammohan Roy established the Atmiya Sabha, later it was developed into Brahmo Sabha in August 1828.
He combined the teachings of the Upanishads, Bible and Koran and preached the concept of only one God.
The work of Atmiya Sabha was carried on by Maharishi Debendranath Tagore (father of Rabindranath Tagore), who renamed it Brahmo Samaj.
Raja Rammohan Roy is remembered for helping Lord William Bentinck to declare the practice of Sati a punishable offence in 1829.
He adopted a Muslim boy. In 1817, he founded the Hindu College along with David Hare, a missionary. He also set up a school for girls.
He started the first Bengali weekly Samvad Kaumudi and edited a Persian weekly Mirat-ul-Akhbar. He died in Bristol England in 1833.
Brahmo Samaj Principles
He protested against child marriage and female infanticide. He supported widow remarriage, female education, and women’s right to property.
He supported intercaste marriages and preached monotheism, the concept of one god. All gods are the same.
Vivian Derozio’s young Bengal movement ideas, objectives and teaching
Henry Vivian Derozio was the founder of the Young Bengal movement. He was a teacher at Hindu College, Calcutta. He was born in Calcutta in 1809.
He died of Cholera in 1833. His followers were known as Derozians and their movement is called the Young Bengal Movement.
The Young Bengal movement year in the late 1820s and early 1830’s. Derozians attacked old traditions and decadent customs. They advocated women’s rights and education.
They organized debates against idol worship, casteism, and superstitions.
Swami Dayanand Saraswathi and the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswathi at Bombay in 1875. Swami Dayanand Saraswathi believed that Vedas were the source of true knowledge.
His motto was “Back to the Vedas”. He was against idol worship, child marriage, and the caste system based on birth.
He encouraged inter-caste marriage and widow remarriage. He started the Suddi movement to bring back converted people back to Hinduism.
He wrote the book Satyartha Prakash which contains his ideas. Arya Samaj contributed much to education. The first Dayanand Anglo Vedic (DAV) School was founded in 1886 in Lahore.
Arya Samaj also spread nationalism.
Arya Samaj Marriage
Arya Samaj was against Child marriage. It encouraged intercaste marriage. Also, it encouraged widow remarriage.
Prarthana Samaj was established in 1867 in Bombay. Prarthana Samaj was founded by Dr.Atmaram Pandurang. It was an offshoot of Brahmo Samaj.
Prarthana Samaj Principles and Objectives
It tried to reform Hinduism. It mostly concentrated on social reforms like Inter Dining which is common dining of persons from various castes, religions, etc.
It encourages widow remarriage, intermarriage, upliftment of women, and depressed classes. Justice M.G. Ranade and R.G. Bhandarkar joined in 1870 and Justice Ranade promoted the Deccan Education Society.
Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna Mission
Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda. The original name of Vivekananda is Narendranath Dutta (1863-1902).
He was a disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. Educated in Scottish Church College Narendranath took the Sanyasa and was given the name, Vivekananda.
He preached Vedantic Philosophy. He was against the caste system and current Hindu emphasis on rituals and ceremonies.
He participated at the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago (USA) in September 1893 and talked about Hinduism. He founded the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur in Howrah in 1897.
It was founded in New York (USA) in 1875 by Madam H.P. Blavatsky, a Russian lady, and Henry Steel Olcott, an American colonel.
The main objective was to form a universal brotherhood of man without any distinction of race, colour, or creed and to promote the study of ancient religion and philosophies.
They established headquarters at Adyar in Madras in 1882. After the death of Olcott, Annie Besant took the leadership of society.
Annie Besant founded the Central Hindu School with Madan Malaviya at Benaras which later developed into the Benaras Hindu University.
Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
He was a great educator, humanist and social reformer. Born in 1820 in Midnapur Bengal. He was Head Pandit of the Bengali Department of Fort William College.
Vidyasagar founded many schools for girls. He helped J.D. Bethune to establish the Bethune School; he founded the Metropolitan Institution in Calcutta.
He protested against child marriage and favoured window remarriage which was legalized by the Widow Remarriage Act (1856).
He was given the title Vidyasagar, due to his support for the spread of education.
Belonging to a low-caste family in Maharashtra. He did life lifelong struggle against upper caste domination and Brahmanical supremacy.
He founded the Satyashodak Samaj in 1873, to fight against the caste system and he pioneered the widow remarriage movement in Maharashtra and worked for the education of women.
Jyotiba Phule and his wife established the first girl’s school at Poona in 1851.
Muslim Reform Movement
Muslim Reforms were started later because they avoided Western education in the beginning.
The first effort was in 1863 when the Muhammad Literary Society was set up in Calcutta, to popularize the study of English and Western sciences.
This movement was started by Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98). It is for the social and educational advancement of the Muslims in India.
He fought against medieval backwardness and advocated a rational approach toward religion.
In 1866, he started the Mohammadan educational conference as a general forum for spreading liberal ideas among Muslims. He founded the modern school at Aligarh to promote English education among Muslims.
This turned into Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College and the Aligarh University.
Orthodox section of Muslims, Ulema organized the Deoband movement. It had two objectives one was to propagate pure teachings of the Koran and the Hadis to Muslims, another one was to keep alive the spirit of Jihad against the foreign rulers.
The new Deoband leader Mahmud-ul-Hasan (1851-1920) sought to impart political and intellectual content to the religious ideas of the school.
Sikh Reform Movement
Baba Dayal Das founded the Nirankari Movement, he insisted on the worship of God as Nirankar (formless).
Namdari Movement was founded by Baba Ram Singh and his followers wore white clothes and gave up meat-eating.
The Singh Sabhas were started in Lahore and Amritsar in 1870 and were aimed at reforming the Sikh society.
They helped to set up the Khalsa College at Amritsar in 1892. They also encourage Gurmukhi and Punjabi literature.
In 1920, the Akalis started a movement to remove the corrupt Mahants (priests) from the Sikh gurudwaras. Akalis organized themselves into a political party.
Parsi Reform Movement
The Parsi religious reform association was founded in Bombay in 1851 by Furduni Naoroji and SS Bengalee. They spread the value of women’s education.
They started to reform their marriage customs. Naoroji published a monthly journal, Jagat Mithra.
He was one of the foremost saints of Tamil Nadu in the 19th century. Developing a deep interest in spiritual life, moved to Karunguli in 1858 and settled as a saint.
His divine powers came to be recognized at the early age of eleven. In 1865 he founded the Samarasa Suddha Sanmargha Sangha for the promotion of ideals of establishing a casteless society.
He composed Tiru Arutpa, Manu Murai Kanda Vasagam, and Jeeva Karunyam and then started constructing the Satya Gnana Sabai in 1872.
He introduced the principle that God could be worshipped in the form of light.
Sri Vaikunda Swamigal
Sri Vaikunda Swamigal was born in 1809 at Swamithoppu in the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu.
His original name was Mudichoodum Perumal and was called Muthukkuty. He preached against the caste system and untouchability.
He condemned religious ceremonies. Many came to his place to worship him and slowly his teachings came to be known as Ayyavazhi.
By the mid-19th century, Ayyavazhi came to be recognized as a separate religion and in the regions of South Travancore and South Tirunelveli.
After his death, the religion was spread based on his teachings and the religious books AkilattirattuAmmanai and Arul Nool. Hundreds of Nizhal Thangals (places of worship) were built across the country.
Self-Respect Movement and Periyar E.V.R.
Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy was a great social reformer. Furthermore, he cut down 1000 coconut trees on his farm during the anti-liquor campaign.
In addition in 1924, he took an active part in the Vaikam Satyagraha.
The objective of the Satyagraha was to secure for untouchables the right to use a road near a temple at Vaikom in Kerala.
E.V.R. opposed the Varnashrama policy followed in the V.V.S. Iyer’s Seranmadevi Gurugulam.
During 1920 – 1925, the Congrees Party stressed that Congress should accept communal representation. Subsequently, in 1925, he started the “Self-Respect Movement”.
The aims of the ‘Self-Respect Movement’ were to uplift the Dravidians and to expose the Brahminical tyranny and deceptive methods by which they controlled all spheres of Hindu life.
He denounced the caste system, child marriage, and enforced widowhood. Also, he encouraged inter-caste marriages.
He conducted many marriages without any rituals. Such a marriage was known as a “Self- Respect Marriage.”
He gave secular names to newborn babies. He attacked the laws of Manu, which he called the basis of the entire Hindu social fabric of caste.
He founded the Tamil journals Kudiarasu, Puratchi, and Viduthalai to propagate his ideals.
In 1938 at the Tamil Nadu Women’s Conference appreciating the noble service rendered by E.V.R. he was given the title “Periyar”.
On 27 June 1970, the UNESCO organization praised and adorned with the title “Socrates of SouthAsia”.
The National Renaissance was a multifaceted movement and its legacy is still being remembered. It has great impact on Indian society and helped to shape modern India.
Rote Learning is something, that a child needs the foundation to be strong needs rote learning.
It is a type of learning, that needs a child or student needs to remember the facts, knowledge without a need to understand.
It is just like storing data on a memory card. Such learning is referred to as rote learning. Example of rote learning is Multiplication tables, alphabets, numerals, etc.
Rote learning is important to make the student remember certain facts or data, that they should not forget forever.
Conceptual learning, on the other hand, is just the opposite of Rote Learning. Making the student understand the concepts and make them ask why, what, how?
This helps them to use the facts and apply them in their daily life.
Making the student only for rote learning is a dangerous trend, at the end of the day after schooling and graduation, one has to apply the concepts learned in daily life that make the education complete.
The mere memorizing of data in rote learning may help remember for exams but conceptual learning is the one that makes education a valuable asset.
Scientific temper, this word was used by Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru in 1946. It is also mentioned in the Indian constitution, Article 51A.
As per Article 51A, “To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform” is one of the fundamental duties of the people of India.
The Scientific is a way of life that uses the scientific method and which may consequently include questioning, observing physical reality, testing, hypothesizing, analyzing, and communicating.
The idea of the scientific temper is expressed earlier by Charles Darwin when he said, “Freedom of thought is best promoted by the gradual illumination of men’s minds, which follows from the advance of science”. Check Charles Darwin’s book on The Descent Of Man to know more.
Karl Marx said religion is the reason for people’s problems and he wised religion should be abolished. Karl Marx said that “Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions.”
“[What is needed] is the scientific approach, the adventurous and yet critical temper of science, the search for truth and new knowledge, the refusal to accept anything without testing and trial, the capacity to change previous conclusions in the face of new evidence, the reliance on observed fact and not on pre-conceived theory, the hard discipline of the mind—all this is necessary, not merely for the application of science but for life itself and the solution of its many problems.” —Jawaharlal Nehru (1946) in the book The Discovery of India.
Advantages of Scientific Temper
Scientific temper helps us to deal with our life in a systematic way and helps us to have a sense of happenings around us. It helps us have rational thoughts which is the most necessary thing in this present world.
It gives us the courage and freedom to question the authorities about any issues regarding the public interest. Scientific temper to make life decisions, particularly to age-old customs that stop us to move further on the positive side.
It helps us to not get affected by social and cultural beliefs which stop us to love our fellow humans.
Inculcation of scientific temper
Encourage the children, and students to ask a question on almost every topic and help them understand what is right, and give them rational, scientific, and secular thoughts.
Question every single social, religious, scientific, and rational thought and make the student, children develop critical thinking skills on well-established ideals. Teach children and students, Science which is the principle behind everything around us.
Spread Science among all the people using various media such as Print, Television, Games, Apps, etc.
The Scientific Method
The scientific method is a bit-by-bit procedure in examining natural phenomenon and building laws that involve these phenomena.
It involves the following methods:
Prediction and verification of falsification of theories
The Governor of the State of India has similar powers and functions at the state level as those of the President of India. The is also called Rajyapal.
He/She is the titular head of the state and the agent of the centre as the Union government nominates of Governor in each state.
Article 163 upsc
There shall be Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions except in so far as he is by or under the Constitution required to exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion.
The executive power of the state is vested Governor and all executive action in the state taken in the name of the governor.
But he has to act as the nominal head of the state due to parliamentary system.
As per article 153, there shall be governor for each state.
But an amendment of 1956 makes it appointed of the governor for two or more states.
The governor is not elected but appointed by the President and hold office at the pleasure of the president.
Eligibility of Governor
Any citizen of India over 35 years of age is eligible for the office.
He must not hold any office of profit, not be a member of the legislature of the union or of any state according to Article 158.
Sarkaria Commission has suggested that a person to be appointed as governor should satisfy:
Should be eminent in some walk of life.
should be a person from outside the state.
should be a detached figure and not intimately connected with local polities of the state.
should be a person who has not taken too great a part in politics generally and particularly in the recent past.
In selecting a governor in accordance with the above criteria, persons belonging to the minority groups should continue to be given a chance as hitherto.
As per the constitution, the governor is appointed by the president by a warrant under his hand and seal. But in actual practice, the governor is appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
Term of Governor
The normal term of governor’s office shall be five years.
Governor continues in office till his successor joins the office.
Governor may lose his office by resignation or the dismissal by the president.
Governor gets his salary from the Consolidated Fund of the state which is non-votable in the State Legislature.
Power and Functions of the Governor
The Governor is the head of the state executive and has enormous powers.
In the exercise of functions and powers, the Governors, except in some case is to be guided by a council of ministers headed by Chief Minister under Article 163.
The powers of the governor are divided into six, that are Executive, Legislative, Financial, Judicial, Discretionary and Miscellaneous Powers.
Executive Powers of Governor
All executive actions of the state government are formally taken in the name of the governor.
Governor appoints the Chief Minister and other ministers. They also hold office during his pleasure.
Governor appoints the Advocate-General of the state and determines his remuneration. The advocate general holds his office during the pleasure of the governor.
Governor appoints the State Election Commissioner and determines his condition of service and tenure of office.
Governor appoints the Chairman and Members of the State Public Service Commission. But they can be removed only by the President and not by the Governor.
Governor can seek any information relating to the affairs of the state and the proposals for legislation from the Chief Minister.
Governor can require the Chief Minister to submit for the consideration of the council of ministers on any matter.
Governor cam make rules specifying the manner in which the orders and other instruments made and executed in governors name, shall be authenticated.
Governor can make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the government and for the allocation among the ministers of the said business
Governor can recommend for the imposition of President’s rule in the state to the President under Article 356. During such rule, the governor enjoys extensive executive powers as an agent of the President.
Legislative Powers of Governor
Governor is an integral part of the state legislature. But he is not a member in either house of the legislature.
In this capacity the governor enjoys the following legislative powers:
Governor has the right to summon or prorogue the state legislature and dissolve the State Legislative Assembly.
Governor can address the state legislature at the commencement of the first session after each general election and the first session of each year.
the governor can send messages to the house of the state legislature relating to a bill pending in the legislature.
1.Who is rajyapal in India?
Rajyapal in India are the governors of state, who is titular head of the state.
The state legislature in India consists of the Governor, the Legislative Assembly, and the Legislative Council (Some States).
Some states have a bicameral legislature. The Lower house is called Legislative Assembly and the upper house is called the Legislative council.
At present, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, and Jammu & Kashmir have Legislative Councils.
The Legislative council may be created or abolished in a state if the Legislative assembly of that state passes a resolution to that effect by the special majority, and the Parliament, consequently, enacts the law to that effect.
The maximum strength of the Legislative council cannot exceed the 1/3 number of the strength of the legislative assembly and the minimum strength of the council shall not be less than 40 members.
The one-sixth members of the total members of the Legislative Council are nominated by the Governor and the rest 5/6 are indirectly elected.
Among the elected members, 1/3rd are elected by electorates consisting of local bodies like municipalities and District boards.
The 1/12th members of the council are elected by electorates consisting of graduates of three years standing.
Again, 12th members are elected by electorates consisting of persons who have been for at least three years engaged in teaching in educational institutions which are not lower than a secondary school.
The remaining 1/3rd members of the Legislative are elected by the members of the Legislative Assembly.
The members nominated by the governor are persons who have special knowledge or practical experience in the fields of literature, science, art, the cooperative movement, and social service.
The Legislative council is a permanent house and is not subject to dissolution.
The 1/3 members of the Legislative council retire after 2 years.
The term of the member of the Legislative council is 6 years.
State legislative assembly
The maximum strength of the legislative assembly cannot exceed 500 and the minimum strength cannot be lower than 60 members.
The governor may nominate one member belonging to the Anglo-India community in the Legislative Assembly if he is convinced that the Anglo India community is not adequately represented in the Assembly.
The term of the legislative assembly is 5 years.
The legislative assembly can be dissolved before the expiry of its five years term by the Governor.
when the proclamation of national emergency is in operation under Article 352, the term of the Assembly may be extended by parliament for one year at a time which should not extend in any case beyond a period of six months after the Proclamation has been withdrawn.
the legislative assembly elects its speaker and Dy. Speaker and the Legislative council elects its chairman and Dy.Chairman.
The question as to the qualification and disqualification of a member of the state legislature is decided by the governor with the consultation of the election commission.
the legislative council can withhold money bills for only 14 days and ordinary bills for only three months. It can withhold a bill after reconsideration by the Legislative Assembly for a period of one month.
If the Legislative council and the Legislative Assembly disagree on a bill, there is no provision for a joint sitting to resolve the disagreement. The desire of the Legislative Assembly prevails in such a situation.
If a bill is passed by the Legislative council and presented to the legislative assembly and it is not passed by the assembly, the will come to an end.
State Legislative Council or Vidhan Parishad
It is an establishment that is defined in Article 169.
Which state legislative assembly has the maximum strength?
Uttar Pradesh has largest assembly and it has 404 members in its assembly.
2. What is the maximum strength prescribed for state legislative assemblies?
The maximum strength prescribed for state legislative assembly is “It must not exceed 500 or its minimum strength should not fall below 60”.
2. Which state legislative assembly has minimum strength?
However an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament. In the states of Goa, Sikkim, Mizoram and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members.
Goa is the smallest state whose legislative assembly with only 40 members.
4. Which state legislative assembly has two houses and How many legislative councils are there in India?
As of December 2020, there 6 legislative councils are there in India. The states are Andra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana and Uttar Pradesh.
Natural resources of India include coal, where India has the fourth largest coal reserve in the world, also several other important mineral reserves such as Iron ore, manganese ore (7th largest reserve), bauxite (5th largest), thorium etc.
The most important natural resources are Oil, coal, natural gas, metals, stone and sand. Of this India has abundant natural resources.
Metallic are of two types: Ferrous and Non-Ferrous. Ferrous minerals have iron content such as iron, manganese, nickel, cobalt, tungsten, etc.
Non-Ferrous Minerals- do not have iron content such as gold, silver, copper, bauxite, etc.
Nonmetallic minerals do not contain metals, such as mica, limestone, gypsum, potash, and coal. Non-metallic minerals are also called mineral fuels, such as coal and petroleum.
Distribution of natural resources in India
It is estimated that about 100 different minerals are known to be produced in India, out of the 30 are important.
Most of the metallic minerals are found in the peninsular plateau regions, especially in old crystalline rocks. Mineral distribution is concentrated in three belts. Maybe some occurrence here and there is in isolated pockets.
The three belts are the northeastern plateau, southwestern plateau, and northwestern region.
Iron is not found in pure form, it is often mixed with lime, magnesium, phosphorous, silicon, etc. There are four types of iron ore Haematite, Magnetite, Limonite, and Siderite.
Haematite is reddish in colour, also known as red ochre. It contains 60-70% of iron.
The ore colour is dark brown to blackish and is called black ore. It has magnetic properties. It contains 70% of iron.
It is an inferior variety of iron ore and has many impurities and is also called iron carbonate. It contains 20 to 40% of iron.
It is yellow or light brown in colour, it is called hydrated iron oxide when the iron ore is mixed with oxygen and water. Its mining is cheaper and easier. It contains 40 to 60% of iron.
Iron ore reserves
India has 20% of the world’s total iron reserves. About 75% of the total reserves of iron ore in India are of haematite grade.
Jharkhand, Orissa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, and Goa, have 97% of the total iron ore reserves of India.
It is a silver-grey element and it is very hard and brittle. Manganese is always available as a combination with iron, laterite, and other minerals.
It is widely used in iron and steel manufacturing. Also used for making various alloys. Used in making of batteries, bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, etc.
Manganese ore reserves
Found in Odisha (44%), Karnataka (22%), Madhya Pradesh (12%), Maharashtra(7%), Goa (7%), Andra Pradesh (4%), Jharkhand (2%).
Also found in Rajasthan Gujarat, Telangana, and West Bengal. The leading producers of Manganese Ore are the Nagpur, Bhandara, Ratnagiri districts of Maharastra.
Balaghat, Chhindwara districts.
Sundargarh, Kalahandi, Koraput, and Bolangir districts are the major ones.
Other producers are:
Andhra Pradesh (13%)
Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Cuddapah, and Guntur districts.
Districts of Shimoga, Bellary, Chitradurga, and Tumkur.
Copper is an important metal that is used by prehistoric men. Bronze is an alloy of Copper, Zinc, and tin. Copper is used for making Electrical wires, Cooking utensils, etc.
Copper Ore Reserves
Rajasthan state has the largest copper reserve in the country that provides 53.81% of the total produce. It is followed by Jharkhand with 19.54% and Madhya Pradesh with 18.75%.
Other producers are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal. Together these states account for 7.9%.
Khetri, Alwar, and Bhilwara districts.
Dehradun and Garhwal Districts
Guntur, Kurnool, and Nellore districts
Chitradurga and Hassan districts.
Bauxite is an important ore of Aluminium. This ore is found in rocks consisting mainly of hydrated aluminium. It is distributed in the areas of laterite soil.
Aluminium is lightweight and is used in the manufacturing of aircraft, automobile engines, manufacture of cement, various chemicals, etc.
Bauxite deposits are mainly found in Odisha (50.2%), Gujarat(15.8%), Jharkhand(11.9%), Maharashtra(9.9%), Chhattisgarh (6.2%) and Tamil Nadu (2.7%).
The Non-Metallic Minerals include Mica, limestone, gypsum, nitrate, potash, dolomite, coal, petroleum, etc
Mica is used in the electrical industry, as insulating material as it withstands high voltage and has a low power loss factor. Abhrak is a top-quality mica. Mica is translucent. It can be easily split into thin sheets.
It is also used in making lubricants, medicines, paints, and varnishes.
Mica Ore Reserves
Mica deposits are found in Andhra Pradesh(41%), Rajasthan(21%), and Odisha (20%).
Nellore, Visakhapatnam, West Godavari, and Krishna
Bhilwara, Jaipur, and Ajmer districts
Rayagada, Bolangir, and Sundargarh districts
Palamu, Ranchi, and Singhbum districts.
These are rocks that are composed of calcium carbonate or the double carbonate of calcium and magnesium or both. The limestones also contain little silica, alumina, iron oxides, phosphorous, and sulphur.
These are used in making soda ash, caustic soda, bleaching powder, cement, steel plants, glass, fertilizers, and paper.
Limestone Ore Reserves
Andra Pradesh and Telangana produce the most limestone ores with 20% each. Rajasthan (20%), Madhya Pradesh (12%), Tamil Nadu (8.4%), and Karnataka has the most limestone reserves (27%), followed by Andra Pradesh and Rajasthan (12% each), Gujarat (10%), Meghalaya (9%), Telangana (8%), Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh (5% each) and the remaining by other states.
Cuddapah, Kurnool, and Guntur districts
Nalgonda, Adilabad, Warangal and Karimnagar
Jodhpur, Ajmer, Bikhaner and Kota
Jabalpur and Satna Districts
Salem, Kancheepuram, Tiruchirappalli, Thoothukkudi, Tirunelveli, and Virudhunagar districts.
Gypsum is hydrated sulphate of calcium. It is white, and opaque. These are found in the beds of sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone, and shale.
It is used in the manufacture of cement, fertilizers, plaster of Paris, etc. It is also used in conditioning soil.
Gypsum Ore Reserve
Rajasthan state accounts for 81% of the total reserve in the country. Also, there is a 14% reserve in Jammu and Kashmir and a 2% Reserve in Tamil Nadu.
Also, 3% of resources were present in the states of Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.
Rajasthan produces 82% of the country, Jammu and Kashmir produce 14%, and other states such as Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu produces 4% each.
During the time of World War II, armed revolutionary activities continued. The role of Subhas Chandra Bose is incomparable.
On July 2, 1943, Netaji reached Singapore and gave the rousing war cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’. He was made the President of the Indian Independence League and soon became the supreme commander of the Indian National Army.
He gave the country the slogan “Jai Hind”. The name of the INA three Brigade was the Subhas Brigade, Gandhi Brigade, and Nehru Brigade.
The women’s wing was named after Rani Laxmi Bai. INA marched towards Imphal after registering its victory over Kohima.
After Japan surrendered in 1945, INA failed in its efforts. Then Netaji to Taiwan, on his way to Tokyo he died in the plane crash on 18-Aug-1945.
The trial of the soldiers of INA was held at Red Fort in Delhi. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai, and Tej Bahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of the soldiers.
Moulana Abulkalam Azad
Moulana Abulkalam Azad, along with M.A. Ansari, Saifuddin Kitchlew, and the Ali brothers were prominent leaders behind the Khilafat Movement.
Moulana Abulkalam Azad along with Nehru was imprisoned in Ahmednagar Fort, as a precautionary measure by the government when the All India Congress party passed Quit India Resolution and Gandhi gave his call of ‘do or die’.
Moulana Abulkalam Azad as the congress president rejected the idea of composition in geographical terms as the region comprising the Muslim majority provinces of Bengal and Assam in the Northeast and the Punjab, Sind, and Baluchistan in teh North West.
Motilal Nehru along with Chittranjan Das formed a separate group within the congress known as Swarat Party on 1 January 1923.
The Swaraj Party gained impressive successes, in the central Legislative council Motilal Nehru became the leader of the party.
Motilal Nehru also prepared a blueprint for the future constitution of India. The report published by the committee headed by Motilal Nehru was called as Nehru Report (1928).
Jawaharlal Nehru who presided annual session of congress in Lahore in December 1929 passed the Poorna Swaraj resolution.
Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months for Individual Satyagraha against the August offer.
Jawaharlal Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad, and other leaders were imprisoned in the Ahmednagar Fort as a precautionary measure after passing the Quit India Resolution.
As a part of the Cabinet’s mission plan (1946), An interim Government was formed under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru on 2 September 1946.
Rabindranath Tagore was one of the central figures who popularised ideas through his writings. He outlined the constructive programme of atmashakti (self-help).
Tagore called for economic self-development and insisted that education should be provided in swadeshi languages.
He also made the call for utilizing melas, or fairs to spread the message of atmashakti.
This became the creed of the whole of Bengal and swadeshi ships sprang all over the place selling textiles, handlooms, soaps, earthenware, matches, and leather goods.
He renounced his title knighthood immediately after the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre.
By 1930, Dr. Ambedkar has become national leader stature championing the cause of depressed people. In the first round table conference, Ambedkar demanded separate electorates for depressed people.
On 16 August 1932, British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement regarding Communal Award.
As per communal award, depressed classes were considered as a separate community, and provisions were made for separate electorates for them.
Mahatma Gandhi protested against the Communal Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932. Finally, an agreement was reached between Dr.Ambedkar and Gandhi, this agreement is called the Poona Pact.
Accordingly, 148 seats in different Provincial Legislatures were reserved for the Depressed Classed in place of 71 as provided in the communal award.
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was appointed as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee, the constitution of India was finally adopted on 26 November 1949. The Constitution came into effect on 26 January 1950.
Ambedkar dedicated his entire life to the welfare of the downtrodden. In Bombay, he formed a Bahiskrit Hitkarini Sabha(Association for the welfare of excluded) in July 1924.
He also organized the Akhil Bharatiya Dali, Varg Sabha to fight against caste oppression and started a journal called Mook Nayak (leader of the dumb).
He launched the Mahad Satyagraha to establish the civic right of the untouchables to public tanks and wells and started the Independent Labour party in 1937 and the second Scheduled Caste Federation in 1942.
The colonial government made him a member of the Defence Advisory Committee in 1942 and a minister in the Viceroys cabinet.
The Karachi session held in March 1931, presided over by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, adopted a resolution on Fundamental Rights and Duties and provided an insight into the economic policy of an independent India.
Sardar Vallabhai Patel in Bombay took the initiative to bring the Royal Indian Navy Revolt to an end.
the viceroy issued invitations on 15 June 1946 to the 14 men to join the interim government, Patel was one invited.
Govind Ballabh Pant, accepting partition (Mountbatten plan), was approved. It required the persuasive powers of Nehru and Patel as well as the moral authority of Gandhi to get the majority in the AICC in favor of the resolution.
The task of integrating the Princely States into the Indian Union was achieved with such speed that by August 15, 1947, except Kashmir, Junagadh, and Hyderabad.
The rapid unification of India was ably handled and achieved by Sardar Vallabhai Patel, who was Home Minister in the Interim Cabinet.
This post is written for the topic “Communalism and Partition Tnpsc“.
In 1930, Md Iqbal for the first time suggested that the Frontier Province, Sind, Baluchistan, and Kashmir be made the Muslim state within the federation.
Chaudhary Rehmat Ali coined the term ‘Pakistan’ (later Pakistan).
The fear of Muslims being subjugated by Hindus in free India was realized by Jinnah and he demanded the creation of Pakistan.
Pakistan Resolution Muslim League first passed the proposal of separate Pakistan in its Lahore Session in 1940 (called Jinnah’s Two-Nation theory).
It was drafted by Sikandar Hayat Khan, moved by FazlulHaq, and seconded by Khaliquzzaman.
It rejected the federal scheme envisaged in the Government of India Act, 1935.
In the 1937 election, Congress won 7 out of 11 provinces and formed the largest party in three other. The Muslim league performance was dismal, it won only 4.8% of Muslim votes.
After the election, Congress has emerged as a mass secular party. Yet it is branded as a Hindu Organization by the Muslim League.
After seeing this dismal performance, the Muslim league was convinced that the only choice was to whip up emotion on communal lines in provinces like Bengal and Punjab.
Jinnah exploited the emotional campaign of ‘Islam in danger’ to gain mass Muslim support after the 1936-37 elections. A divisive cause in which Hindu Mahasabha came to their help through coalition ministries.
Observation of Day of Deliverance
The second World war broke out in 1939, India was announced as part of War by the Viceroy of India, Lord Linlithgow. Since this decision is made without any consultation with Congress.
The Congress Working Committee decided, that all congress ministries in the provinces would resign. After the resignation, the provincial governors took over the charge of provincial administration.
In December 1943, the Karachi Session of the Muslim League adopted the slogan-‘Divide and Quit’.
Muslim league celebrated the end of Congress rule as a day of deliverance on 22 December 1939. On the day the League passed resolutions in various places against Congress for its alleged atrocities against Muslims.
The demonstration of Nationalist Muslims was dubbed as Anti-Islamic by the Muslim league. Then the league passed its resolution on 26 March 1940 in Lahore demanding a separate nation for Muslims.
It was neither Jinnah nor Nawab Zafrullah Khan that considered the creation of a separate state for Muslims. But on March 23, 1940, the Muslim League formally adopted the idea by passing a resolution.
“Resolved that it is the concerted view of this session of the All India Muslim League that no constitutional scheme would be workable in this country or acceptable to Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principles, viz. that geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary, that the area in which the Muslims are numerically in majority should be grouped to constitute Independent State.”
Muslim Leagues statement after passing the resolution
The Muslim league also resolved that the British government before leaving India should effect partition of the Indian Union, into India and Pakistan.
Direct Action Day
Throughout the early 1940s, Hindu Communalism and Muslim communalism fed on each other. The Muslim league openly boycotted the Quit India movement of 1942.
In 1946, General elections to the Constituent Assembly, Muslim League won all 30 seats reserved for Muslims in the Central Legislative Assembly and most of the reserved provincial seats as well.
The congress party was successful in gathering most of the general electorate seats but it is no longer effectively insisted that it spoke for the entire population of British India.
Congress-Muslim League Deadlock
In 1946, Pethick Lawrence, Secretary of State led a three-member Cabinet to New Delhi to resolve the deadlock between Congress and the Muslim League. And to transfer the British power to a single Indian administration.
Cripps was primarily responsible for drafting the Cabinet mission plan. This plan proposed a three-tier federation for India. It is integrated by a central government in Delhi, which is limited to handling foreign affairs, communications, defense, and finances of Union matters.
The subcontinent would be divided into three major groups of provinces: Group A includes Hindu majority provinces of Bombay Presidency, Madras Presidency, the United Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, and Central Provinces.
Group B contains the Muslim majority provinces of the Punjab, Sind, Northwest Frontier, and Baluchistan. Group C to include the Muslim majority Bengal and Hindu majority Assam.
The group government was Autonomous except in matters reserved to the centre.
Jinnah and Congress leaders accept the Cabinet Missions proposals. But on July 29, 1946, the Muslim League adopted a resolution rejecting the Cabinet Mission plan and called Muslims to observe a ‘Direct Action Day’ in protest on August 16.
The riots took place for four days in Calcutta that led to terrible violence resulting in several thousand deaths.
Gandhi who was until then resisting any effort to vivisect the country had to accede to the demand of the Muslim League for the creation of Pakistan.
Mountbatten who succeeded Wavell came to India as Viceroy to effect the partition plan and transfer of power.
Points to Remember
Communalism in British India is traced to the religious reform movements, Arya Samaj and Theosophical Society representing Hinduism, and Wahabi and Khilafat movements representing Islam.
Hindu nationalism, Muslim nationalism, and secular nationalism competed with each other to politicize the people in their fight against British colonialism.
Cow Protection Associations and their attempt to prevent the killing of cows led to riots and the spread of communalism.
The use of religion in politics and its fallout in North India created an estrangement between Hindus and Muslims.
The government’s encouragement of communalisation of politics resulted in the formation of the All India Muslim League.
The granting of a separate electorate to Muslims encouraged it further to demand a separate state for Muslims.
Campaigns of Hindu Mahasabha for a Hindu Rashtra contributed to a total estrangement between Hindus and Muslims.
The latter celebrated the resignation of Congress ministries in provinces in the wake of the Second World War as a day of deliverance.
Jinnah’s obstinacy in arriving at a settlement based on Cabinet Mission Plan and his call for Direct Action Day in 1946 led to a civil war-like situation in Calcutta, ending in the partition of the country into India and Pakistan.
Changes in the constitution of the court of directors such as the term of the directors, eligibility for the right to vote etc and subjection of their actions to the British Government.
Government of Bengal to be carried on by a Governor-General of Fort William and his Council of 4 members (Warren Hastings –first Governor-General of Fort Williams).
The power of the Governor General-in-Council to supervise and control the Bombay and Madras Presidencies in matters of peace and war.
Establishment of a Supreme Court at Calcutta, with a Chief Justice (first Chief Justice –ElijaImpey) and three judges to administer justice (both civil and criminal) over all British subjects of Bengal Presidency.
Prohibition of receiving all presents and bribes by the servants of the Company.
Completion of the introduction of free trade in India by abolishing the company’s monopoly of trade in tea and trade with China.
Renaming the Governor General of Fort William as the Governor General of India (William Bentinck was the first Governor General of India as well as the Governor of Bengal Presidency).
Inclusion of a Law Member in the Council of the Governor General (Macaulay –the first Law Member).
Abolition of the legislative decentralization (i.e., the power of different Presidencies to make law for themselves) and giving the Governor General-in-council the power to make laws for all British India.
Charter Act of 1853
Appointment of a separate Lieutenant Governor for Bengal and making Dalhousie the first real Governor General of India (i.e. without any additional charge).
Depriving the company (Court of Directors) of its right to appoint and recall officials in India, and introduction of the system of direct recruitment to the I.C.S. through a competitive exam (Board of Control was to, do the recruitment).
Inclusion of additional members to the Governor General’s council, which was to act as the Legislative Council (total members –12).
Government of India Act of 1858
Abolition of the company’s rule and beginning of the rule by the British Crown.
Abolition of the Board of Control and the Court of Directors.
Appointment of a Secretary of State for India (who wouldbe a member of the British Cabinet) who would rule India with the aid of a Council, viz. India Council, consisting of 15 members. (Sir Charles Wood, the last President of the Board of Control, was made the first Secretary of State for India).
Making theGovernor General of India as Viceroy (Lord Canning –first Viceroy as well as the last Governor General of India) and increased control of British Home Government over the Viceroy (through the new Secretary of State for India) due to the establishment of direct telegraph link.
Indian Councils Act of 1861
Enlargement of the legislative wing of the Viceroy’s council (from now onwards known as the Imperial Legislative Council).
Introduction of the Portfolio System (based on Lord Canning’s rules of business) by which each member of the Viceroy’s Excecutive Council was put in change of a department.
Establishment of Legislative Councils in various provinces like Madras, Bombay and Bengal.
Indian Councils Act of 1892
Introduction of indirect elections for the non-official members of the Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils: those of the former were to be nominated by the Bengal, Chamber of Commerce and the Provincial Legislative Councils: those of the latter by certain local bodies such as universities, district boards, municipalities, etc. Retention of the official majority at both levels.
The Councils at both levels were to have the power of discussing the budget (but not of voting) and of addressing questions to the executives.
Indian Councils Act of 1909 or the Morley –Minto Reforms
Introduction of an element of direct elections in the Legislative Councils.
Introduction of separate electorate for the Muslims (Communal Electorates).
Enlargement of the Provincial Legislative Councils and removal of official majority in them.
Retention of official majority in the Imperial Legislative Council.
Increase in the deliberative functions of the Councils at both levels.
Still majority of the non-official at both levels were indirectly elected.
Government of India Act of 1919 or the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms or Montford Reforms
Introduction of ‘Dyarchy’ in the provinces; division of the provincial subjects into ‘Reserved Subjects’ (like police, jails, land revenue, irrigation, forests, etc. to be administered by the Governor and his Executive Council) and ‘Transferred Subjects’ (like education, local self-government, public health and sanitation, agriculture, industries, etc., to be looked after by the Governor and his ministers).
Relaxation of central control over the provinces through ‘Devolution Rules’ which categorized the subjects of administration into two groups, viz, Central and Provincial. (This devolution of powers to the provinces should not, however, be mistaken for a federal distribution of powers for by way of delegation from the centre and not as constitutional division).
Making the Central Legislature bicameral (consisting of the Council of States and Legislative Assembly) and more representative by removing the official majority and increasing the non-official directly elected majority.
The salaries of the Secretary of State for India and his assistants to be paid out of the British revenues (hitherto they were paid out of Indian revenues).
Appointment of a High Commissioner of India at London, who was responsible to Indian Government and paid by it. His duties –to procure stores for Indian government, to supply trade information and promote commerce, and tolook after the education of Indian students in England.
Government of India Act of 1935
Provision for the establishment of an All India Federation to be based on a union of the provinces of British India and the Princely States (It did not come into existence since the Princely States did not give their consent for the union).
Division of powers into three lists –Federal, Provincial and Concurrent, Residuary Powers with the Governor-General.
Provincial Autonomy–the introduction of responsible government in the provinces and abolition of Dyarchy in them.
Provincial Legislatures were made bicameral, for the first time, in 6 provinces (Bengal, Madras, Bombay, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Assam).
Extension of the principle of separate electorates to Sikhs, Europeans, Indian Christians and Anglo-Indians.
‘Discretionary Powers’ of the Governor-General and the Governors.
Establishment of a Federal Court at Delhi (in 1937) with a Chief Justice and not more than 6 judges.
* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.