Monthly Archives: January 2021

Rural and urban sanitation in India Upsc

Rural and Urban Sanitation in India

India has the largest number of malnourished people in the world. Malnourishment is not only because of food but also access to safe drinking water and sanitation.

These diseases such as water-borne diseases are related to huge morbidity and create a loss of working days. Safe water and sanitation are considered as most important social determinants of health.

Water-related illness creates one-third of diseases among adults and two-thirds among children. About one-third population which is 31% live in urban areas and three-fourths in rural areas. We need to consider rural and urban differently due to diverse conditions prevailing in these two different areas.

India is focused on making sure there is access to water and sanitation services to all. The Indian government has launched a flagship scheme, called Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission) and so far over 12 million toilets have been constructed in rural areas.

Rural and Urban Sanitation Upsc

Sanitation refers to public health condition related to clean drinking water and disposal, treatment of human excreta and Sewage.Also promotion of hygiene and prevention of diseases by maintenance of sanitary conditions.


Rural Sanitation in India

Sanitation is primarily access to toilet facilities, safe drinking water, and a drainage system. It is also the absence of garbage or waste materials. According to the 2011 census, only 31% of rural households have access to toilets. There is only little growth from the 2001 census, which is 1% growth every year.

If this rate is continuous India will achieve complete sanitation only in 2081. Progress of rural sanitation is very slow and open defecation is a serious problem. Also, access to tap water and drainage facilities is also at 1/3 level. Also due absence of drainage facilities, such low-lying area gets flooded due to monsoon seasons.

Total Sanitation Campaign

Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was launched in 1999 by the Ministry of Rural development as a community-led programme. There was also IEC i.e Information, Education, and Communication programme launch to educate the people, about the need for sanitation.

The increased toilet facility from the 2001 census to the 2011 census is due to the TSC campaign as per the planning commission (2013). In order to boost the sanitation programme the government launched Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) in 2005 in those Gram Panchayats, Blocks, and districts that attained 100% sanitation.

There were problems with the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) such as the Limited range of technology. Every region is different in geography, socio-economic conditions. Lack of convergence between water supply programme and TSC. As a result, this programme was not accepted in many parts.

The TSC programme was changed to a new strategy known as Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) in 2012 to eliminate convergence between drinking water and sanitation projects.

Urban Sanitation in India

Urban sanitation is better than rural areas. But one-third of the urban households do not have piped drinking water in 2011. Urban sanitation improved only 2% point from the 2001 census to the 2011 census.

Also, one-fifth of the urban households were not connected to drainage facilities. Also, one-fifth have no access to toilet facilities in urban areas. State-level variation in access to water and sanitation remains the same as seen in rural areas.

According to Census 2011, one-fifth of urban people live in slums. Slums add different dimensions to the sanitation and unhygienic conditions. It is not possible to have a toilet in every home in slums due to lack of space, as result to it, Public toilets were built for these people in big cities like Mumbai, Chennai, etc.

To provide water supply, drainage, sanitation, maintenance, etc. to these Public toilets is a big problem, and more efforts are needed by communities, NGOs, and urban local bodies. The problem of sanitation is increased due to the lack of a garbage collection system in some parts of the Urban.

In Urban areas, there is no garbage collection system and the waste is thrown open in the streets. Also, the sanitation in schools, public places, railway stations, etc. is also worse. Most of the railway stations and railroads are stinking places as human waste is released on the railroads. We need to design better rail coaches with good toilet facilities so that human waste is not thrown outside.

Water supply is necessary for sanitation. More water supply means more wastewater gets generation which in turn required good drainage and recycling facilities to handle large volumes.

In many areas drainage gets choked because throw garbage in drainage facilities. Thus sanitation is a larger issue in urban areas.

Policy regarding

Ministry of Urban Development formulated National Sanitation Policy in 2008. As per this policy, the state government is advised to prepare detailed state-level urban sanitation strategies and city sanitation plans. Urban sanitation is funded under Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM-II). In Urban sanitation policy, urban poor is the major problem.

The focus should be more on urban slums where maximum poor people in the city live. Planning Commission 2013, advised that to provide basic services to slums. As every individual has the right to access basic services to live with dignity and government must ensure it primarily. Women cannot use open spaces for basic natural needs, they need to wait for sunset and sunrise so that men cannot see them when doing their natural needs.

This control of natural needs causes a lot of health issues for them. The household belonging to SC/ST are deprived of water and sanitation. This is evidence from the census. Rural areas are more affected form sanitation and water supply lacking than cities, and towns. In a caste-based Indian society, sanitation fall on the shoulders of Scheduled Caste (SC) people.

By this, the union government banned Manual Scavenging in 2013 and those who employ manual scavenging will be imprisoned for up to 5 years. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan an initiative by the Union Government started on the day of Gandhi’s Birthday in the year 2014.

The enforcement of basic services should be guaranteed should be made an integral part of good governance.

Plan to reuse garbage and waste materials, this will create large jobs. Thus sanitation is the issue of waste management. Sewage water must be recycled for industrial and agricultural use. This requires a lot of capital. The state should initiate an integrated plan for each city and village. Sanitation is a local issue and any down methods will not work.

The local government should be made accountable with enough manpower, resources, empowerment, and strategy to deal with sanitation. Sanitation must be made as part of inclusive development. The areas, of SC, ST, and Muslim should not be excluded directly or indirectly. The whole community should work together to achieve the goal of Swachh Bharat.

Sanitation Programmes in India

  • Swachh Bharat Mission
  • National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP)
  • WASH is Schools that includes Anganwadis (Preschools)
  • WASH in Health facilities


Nirmal Gram Puraskar

This is an initiative launched by the Government of India in 2003 and awarded first time in 2005. This award is to promote 100% sanitation in a village and the award is given to the Village Panchayat for their good word towards sanitation.

This initiative is from the Department of Drinking water supply and sanitation under the Ministry Of Rural Development to encourage the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) to achieve full sanitation coverage.


This article is written for the topic ‘Rural and urban sanitation in India’ for Tnpsc and Upsc Exams. It post also useful for the state services exams.

Child labour laws in India Upsc

Child labour laws in India Upsc

Child labour is defined by ILO as the Worst form of child labor as damages children’s health, threatens their education, and leads to further exploitation and abuse.

UNICEF does not oppose work that children may perform at home, on the family farm, or family business – as long as that work is not a danger to their health and wellbeing. And it doesn’t prevent them from going to school and enjoying childhood activities.

child labour

12 June 2020 – International Labor Organization started World Day against Child Labor. This year International Labor Organization celebrating 100 years of advancing Social Justice and promoting decent work.

152 Million Are still in child labor across the world, 73 million work in hazardous labour.

  • 72.1 million Child labour in Africa,
  • almost half of the world. 62.1 million in Asia-Pacific
  • 10.7 million in America’s
  • 1.2 million In Arab states.
  • 5.5 million In Europe and Central Asia.
  • More than 10 million child laborers in India.

Statistics regarding child labor are dismal in India even after continued efforts through legislation for decades. This year India is in 113 positions in Child Labor out of 176 counties, in the report that evaluates countries based on children’s wellbeing.

Child labor has existed throughout history, during the 19th and early 20th centuries, children of age group 15 to 14 from poorer families worked in western nations and their colonies. These children mainly worked in household works, agriculture, factories, mining’s and services such as newsboys.

Some even work in night shift lasting 12 hours. With the increase in household income, availability of schools, and passing of child labor laws, the incident of child labor fell.

However in the world, in the poorest countries around one in every four children is still engaged in child labor. It occurs in almost all sectors, yet 7 out 10 of everyone works in Agriculture.

World Day against Child Labor Aim:

To focus attention on the global extent of child labor. And action and programme to eliminate child labor. This day brings together governments, employers, civil society.

Theme for 2019

Children shouldn’t work in fields, but on dreams!

The theme focuses on transformations in the world of work, and what it means for children. When the result of technology or environment or demographic and what this means to means to children’s in society.

In 2019, ILO also celebrating 100 years of advancing social justice and promoting decent work. Protecting children is embedded in the International Labor Organization since it was founded in 1919.

Now after 100 years International Labor Organization is looking at the Sustainable Development Goals 8.7

Child Labor regarding Sustainable Development goals 8.7

Eradication of child labour is part of the sustainable development goal 8.7 which was adopted in 2015. These goals give calls to the global community to take immediate and effective measures against child labors.

Also enables to take effective measures to eradicate forced labor, end modern slavery and human trafficking. Securing prohibition and elimination of worst forms of child labor.

This includes ending the recruitment and use of child soldiers.

What is Child Labor?

The work is mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful to children. The work interferes with schooling by depriving them of the opportunity to attend school.

The work that forces children to leave school prematurely. The work requires children to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.

Worst forms of Child Labor

All forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery. Also sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and forced or compulsory labor.

It includes forced and compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict. The use of children for prostitution, pornography, sexual performances, etc. Using the children for illicit activities like production and trafficking of drugs.

The works which harm the health, safety, or morals of children.

2017 Report on Child Labor by ILO

The number of child laborers around the world fell from 246 Million in 2000 to 152 million in 2016. Yet the millions of children are exploited in developing countries as cheap laborers.

In India, children are working in starvation, wages in textile factories, brick-making factories, quarries, making and selling tobacco products.

And cheap labor in the industries such as steel extraction, gem polishing, and carpet manufacturing.

Causes of Child Labor in India and steps to prevent it

According to the national census of 2011, the total child population in India in the age group 5 to 14 is 259.6 million. 10.1 million Child laborers in the 5 to 14 age group.

22.87 million Child laborers in the 15-18 age group. It denotes that 1 in 11 children between 5 to 18 age group is child labor. The 2011 census show, 20% decline in the incidence of child worker from the 2001 census. The decline was more visible in rural areas.

During this period the no of child laborers increased in urban areas. In 2001, 11.3 million child laborers were in rural areas. In 2011, 8.1 million child workers were in rural areas.

In 2011, 1.3 million child laborers were in urban areas. In 2011, 2 million children were employed in urban areas. The location of child labor becomes invisible, as the site of work has changed from factories to home dwellers.

2011 census also shows that there are significant disparities between various states in child labor. Five states account for 55% of child workers. Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of child laborers with 2.1 million child laborers.

Bihar has 1 million, Rajasthan has 0.84 million, Madhya Pradesh has 0.7 million and Maharashtra has 0.72 million.


Act says that children under the age of 14 must be employed. Operation Smile, Operation Muskan, etc. Programme to rescue children from works and rehabilitating. Joining again with their families, supporting their families escaping poverty.

There is a need to speed up these operations in the regions where there is large child labor. The states which perform these operations well have less burden of child labor. An analysis by CRY (Child Rights and You) of the 2011 census reveals, that about 1.4 million (7-14) age group, cannot write even their names.

This means 1 in seven child labour in the age group of 7 to 14 is illiterate. This is the sad reality of children who work more than six months a year. The child laborers who support their family by working less than 6 months in a year are equally bad, about 2 million such child labours were also illiterate.

According to several reports, if a child does not attend school for more than 2 months has a high chance of dropping out of school. We need to give bridge education to schools, to be on par with other students.

The parent should be convinced as education would improve the lives of children. In India, Parents are already aware of this, that the reason 95% gross enrolment ratio in schools in the country.

Initiatives against Child Labor

In 1979-First statutory committee to analyze and research child labour. Gurupadswamy committee observed the problem of child labour is linked to poverty. By the recommendation of the above committee, the Government enacted the Child labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act in 1986.

India ratified ILO conventions No 138 and 182. Child labour (Prohibition and Prevention) Amendment Act, 2016.

Child Labour Laws in India

Child labour laws in India

Child Labour Amendment Bill (2016)

No employment of children below the age of 14 years in any commercial enterprise. This act but excludes a section of toiling children in unorganized sectors such as agriculture and household work

No employment of adolescents in hazardous occupations such as chemical plants, mines, etc. The act also says that the children only work after school hours or during holidays. The children are allowed to work in family-owned secure sectors.

However, no child to permit to work between 7 pm and 8 am. Children are not allowed to work overtime and the employer must provide a holiday of one whole day every week to every child employed.

National Policy on Child Labour(1987)

It aims at the rehabilitation of children working in hazardous occupations and processes.

Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act

A working child is one that is in need of care and protection, without limitation of age or occupation.

Right to Education Act 2009

All children aged 6 to 14 years must get a free school education. Article 21A recognizes education as a fundamental right. To use education to combat child labour in India.

Mines Act of 1952

Employment of Children below the age of 18 in Mines is illegal.

International Laws on Child Labour

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989. The Minimum Age for Admission to the employment of 1973 by ILO convention 138 is 18. Worst Forms of child labour of 1999 by ILO convention 182.

2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery

About 4.3 million children below the age of 18 years are employed in forced labour. Around 18% of the 24.8 million forced labour victims around the world. Around 1.0 million children are in commercial sexual exploitation.

3.0 million children in forced labour for other forms of labour exploitation. 300,000 children are in forced labour imposed by state authorities.

Child abusing in India and Posco Act Upsc

Child abuse in India is a burning issue all over the world. This article is for POSCO Act and criminal law amendment bill 2018.

Criminal Law Amendment bill 2018 was passed on Parliament that awards the death penalty to convicts of child rapes in India.

This bill awards the death penalty for the rape of children under the age of 12.

aggravated sexual assault on children

Child Abuse

child abuse
Child Abuse in India

As per a report by child rights by CRY, every 15 minutes a sexual offense is committed against the child in India and has been increasing by more than 500% in the past decade.

As per the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), a report on Statistics on the rape of women and children, 94% of the rapist are well known to the child.

The conviction rate of these crimes is very low, that 3% of the total number of cases, by NCRB report 2016.

The main causes of the low conviction rate are the lack of infrastructure and manpower in the criminal justice system.

Failure of POSCO Act – Posco act was enacted in 2012, despite the Posco act, there has been a non-reduction in the crime rate against children.

Slow Judiciary – Cases in courts last for several years, and even decades due to the storage of judges and infrastructure. The investigation, evidence submission do not happen on time.

The attitude of People and Politicians – Boys making mistakes are common and cannot be punished with death also everyone blames women. This is the attitude of Politicians and people.

A report titled “Everyone blames me” in 2017, says that the Survivors from the marginalized community hard to register complaints.

Most often the rape survivors were humiliated by police and also at the medical center in name medical examinations.

Rape survivors are scared of these complications and do not file a complaint against people who commit sexual violence.

Criminal Law (Amendment) Bill 2018

After Unnao and Kathua minor girl rape cases become National news, an ordinance promulgated on April 21, 2018, a bill to replace the Criminal Law by Criminal Law (Amendment) Bill 2018.

This will amend relevant sections of the IPC and CrPC and also POSCO Act 2012. The bill provides time-bound investigations in cases of child rape.

The investigation of child rape must be completed within two months. If the victim is under the age of 12, the culprit will face a minimum sentence of 20 years and a maximum of the death penalty.

Minimum of 20 years of imprisonment, in the cases of rape against children aged 12 and 16 Minimum of 10 years of imprisonment, in the case of rape against a victim aged 16 to 18.

Life imprisonment or death for repeated offenders. However, the rape of boys remained unchanged.

This resulted in a greater difference in punishment for the rape of minor boys and girls.

POSCO Act -2012 – Posco Amendment Bill

Union Cabinet has recently approved amendments to strengthen POSCO Act 2012. The amendment includes adding the death penalty for aggravated sexual assault on children.

Section 14 and 15 of the Posco Act 2012 address the menace of Child Pornography. Also, the Government set up 1023 fast-track courts for speedy trials of cases of sexual assault on women and children.

Supreme Court also has registered Public Interest Litigation (PIL) suo moto to shape the clear national response of showing zero tolerance towards sexual assault of children.

First time in history the death penalty has been introduced for sexual crimes against children.

In cases of aggravated sexual assault, the bill provides not less than 20 years of rigorous imprisonment extending up to the rest of natural life or death and fine.

The original version of the POSCO act only has 10 years of imprisonment. If there is penetrative sexual assault on children below the age of 16 years, there will rigorous imprisonment with not less than 20 years extendable to the remainder of natural life.

The first time there defined, “Definition of Child Pornography” in Section 14 and Section 15.

This is because the offenders use the loopholes of the IT Act and get away.

The IT Act does not cover sexually explicit photographs of children, it only covers the digital content”.

The FIR should be filed within 30 days.

Challenges regarding Child Abuse

Even the literate were not aware of such laws, the original POSCO Act itself was good enough to stop sexual assault on children but the cases are increasing alarmingly.

Slow Judiciary.

There is a controversy in providing the Death penalty. In some cases, only rape is done and in some cases, rape and murder are done.

When we give the Death penalty to all the cases, it creates deterrence that One would probably continue doing several rapes as anyway he will get the death penalty.

Also, it will make him think it is better to kill the victim and hide the evidence to get escape from the punishment.

To prevent these scenarios the death penalty is not given to all sexual assault cases.

Posco act gives the Judges of the Posco courts the power to announce interim medical compensation for relief.

There are cases where medical compensation has reached the victim only after the victim’s death.

Way Forward

Setting up more fast track courts. Awareness generation among the public. The special cell at the police station, similar to the women’s cell.

Children should be educated to know about their own rights. To provide confidence to the children to report incidences to commit by his/her parent, a person of trust like a teacher, doctor, etc.

Unemployment issues in India and Tamil Nadu

Unemployment problem in India Upsc

Problem of unemployment in India

Unemployment is also part of Macroeconomics as it is aggregated with the economy as a whole.

The problem of unemployment gives rise to poverty. Because of the unemployment, the government borrows more, which causes a decrease in production and consumption of goods, which in turn creates more job loss and poverty.

Under monopolistic competition, the firms produce less than optimum output. As a result, the productive capacity is not used to the fullest extent. This will lead to the unemployment of human resources as well.

Farm mechanization because of the green revolution had created widespread unemployment among agricultural laborers in rural areas. The exception is Punjab and some extent in Haryana.

Small-scale industries provide employment opportunities for large people. Thus SSI reduces the unemployment problem to a great extent.

The Indian labour laws are inflexible and restrictive, and its infrastructure is poor

The Economist

At the time of Independence in 1947, the country suffered from the twin problems of rampant poverty and widespread unemployment, both resulting in a low standard of living.

Arguments against LPG – Extensive section of people continue to face basic economic problems such as poverty, unemployment, deprivation, poor healthcare, rising inflation, agricultural stagnation, food insecurity, and labor migration.

Even after monetary and financial sector reforms, the basic problems of unemployment, poverty, ill-health, and inequalities remain unsolved.

There are unemployment, seasonal unemployment, and underemployment in rural areas. Refers to the situation.

Unemployment refers to the situation of people with willingness and ability to work but is not getting employed.

Underemployment also called disguised unemployment is the situation of people employed in excess, over and above the requirement.

Disguised unemployment is a situation where people work but have no increase in production. Both situations are common in rural areas.

Unemployment problem in India
Cartoon unemployment India

Since rural unemployment and rural poverty are interrelated, the creation of employment opportunities would support the elimination of poverty.

Poverty alleviation schemes and programmes have been implemented, modified, consolidated, expanded, and improved over time.

However, unemployment, begging, rag picking, and slumming continue. Unless employment is given to all the people poverty cannot be eliminated.

Poverty Eradication Schemes

  • 20-Point Programme in 1975
  • Integrated Rural development Programme (IRDP) in 1976
  • Training Rural Youths for Self-Employment (TRYSEM) in 1979
  • Food for work Programme (FWP) in 1977.
  • National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) in 1980.
  • Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) in 1983
  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) in 1989
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)
  • Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Sadak Yojana (PMAGSY)
  • Bharat Nirman Yojana in 2005
  • Indira Awas Yojana in 1985
  • Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) in 2005
  • Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) in 2009
  • National Rural Health Mission in 2005
  • National Rural Livelihood Mission in 2011
  • National Food Security Scheme in 2013

Rural Unemployment

seasonal unemployment in india
seasonal unemployment in India

The unemployment problem in India is especially high in rural areas.

Unemployment is a situation in which a person is actively searching for employment but unable to find work at the prevailing wage rate.

It is a waste of human resources and underutilization of human resources.

As there is unemployment, social problems cannot be stopped, and the economy cannot achieve development.

Rural unemployment was 7.8 percent which is less than urban unemployment (10.1 percent) and all India’s unemployment rate is 8.5%.

We categorize rural unemployment in India into three classes: Open Unemployment, concealed Unemployment or underemployment, and seasonal unemployment.

Open Unemployment

Unemployed persons are identified as they remain without work. We find this type of unemployment among agricultural laborers, rural artisans, and literate persons.

Concealed Unemployment

It is difficult to identify who are underemployed; for many are employed below their productive capacity and even if they are withdrawn from work, the output will not diminish. It is also called Disguised Unemployment or underemployment.

We find this type of unemployment among small and marginal farmers, livestock rearers, and rural artisans.

This kind of unemployment situation is more serious in villages than in urban areas. Disguised unemployment in rural India is 25 percent to 30 percent.

Seasonal Unemployment

In seasonal Unemployment, employment occurs only on a particular season supported by natural circumstances, and the remaining period of a year the rural people are unemployed or partially employed.

In seasons like plowing, sowing, weeding, and harvesting there is a scarcity of labor and in the rest of the year, there is unemployment.

It is pathetic to note that a farmer who cultivates one crop in a year usually goes without a job for almost 5 to 7 months and commits suicide.

“The extent of underemployment is on average, 82 days of unemployment in a year for 84 percent of agricultural laborers”.

Agricultural Labour Enquiry Committee Report

Causes for Rural Unemployment problem in India

problem of unemployment in india
Problems of unemployment in India
  • Absence of Skill development and employment generation.
  • Seasonal nature of Agriculture.
  • Lack of Subsidiary Occupation
  • Mechanization of Agriculture
  • Capital Intensive Technology
  • Defective System of Education
  • Slow Economic growth
  • Caste System
  • Rapid increase in Population

Remedies for Rural Unemployment

  • Subsidiary Occupation
  • Rural works Programme
  • Irrigation Facilities
  • Rural Industrialization
  • Technical Education

Unemployment in Tamilnadu

Unemployment issues in India
unemployment in India

The national average unemployment rate stands at 50 and Tamil Nadu ranks 22nd with an unemployment rate of 42 per 1000. There are different unemployment with different economic implications.

Tamil Nadu is one of India’s richest states Since 1994, The state has seen a steady decline in poverty.

Today, Tamil Nadu has the lowest levels of poverty than most other states in the country. After 2005, Tamil Nadu was among India’s fastest-growing states, with growth being driven mainly by services.

niti aayog logo

Functions and Composition of Niti aayog Upsc

Niti aayog

The planning commission was scrapped by a cabinet resolution on 1 January 2015. A new commission was introduced called Niti Aayog. Its full is ‘National Institution for Transforming India‘.

It is neither a constitutional body nor a statutory body. This institution decentralized the idea of making the entire planning process.

Reason for the Formation Niti Aayog

Functions and Composition of Niti aayog Upsc
Functions and Composition of Niti aayog

The government of India recognized the plurality and diversity of Indian states. The people’s needs were different, as the regions, geographic conditions, and economics were different.

Some states are more developed than others. Example: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, was the most developed, and Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, etc. are the least developed.

As a result, a thought that uniform planning for the entire nation is not the right way to plan and also a uniform plan will not give desired results. Thus it was formed to design a plan for every region.

Centre-State Relationship in Planning

The regional state could be involved in the planning and implementation of development plans in a better manner. It aims at cooperative federalism.

It makes specific plans to make inclusive of all sections of the population that could be made part of the developmental process. It is a Think Tank of the Government of India.

It provides strategic technical advice relating to the policymaking to the Union and the state government. It analyses the best practices from India as well as from other countries.

It advises on all the issues of national and international importance.

niti aayog logo
Niti Aayog Logo
  • Ceo is Amitabh Kant
  • Vice chairman is Rajiv Kumar

Composition of Niti-aayog

  • Prime Minister of India is the chairman of Niti Aayog.
    • Currently(2021) – Narendra Modi

  • Prime appoints the Vice-Chairman – Rajiv Kumar(2021)

  • There are five full time and 2 part-time members.

  • It has a governing Council that comprises of the Chief Minister of all the states and Lt. Governors of the Union Territories.

  • Four members of the Union Council of ministers are nominated as ex-officio members.

  • It also comprises of a Chief Executive officer (CEO) – Amitabh Kant(2021)

Niti aayog vs planning commission


niti aayog darpan


What is Gi Tag?

Gi tag
By Government of Odisha – From Twitter account of Naveen Patnaik, CC BY 4.0,

GI Tag is a sign or indicator given to the products that have a specific geographical origin or reputation due to their geographical origin. It is registered under the Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.

Under the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade. It is defined under Article 22(1) of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement.

Darjeeling Tea is the first product to be given GI Tag in India. It is administered by the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks, which is the Registrar of Geographical Indications located at Chennai.

178 handicrafts were registered under GI tagging as of August 2019.

Geographical indication 2019

  • Palani Panchamirtham
    • It is a ‘Prasadam‘ – A sweet or food which is offered in Temple.
    • It is prepared Palani Murugan temple, it is made up of banana, sugar, ghee, honey, dates, cardamom etc.
    • Virupatchi, a variety of Banana is used for preparation, it grows only in Palani Hills.

  • Tawlhlohpuan
    • It is the earliest Mizor clothes, used by warriors.
    • It is a colourful shawl from Mizoram that has a cultural significance among the Mizo Puan and worn only by courageous warriors among the Mizo men.
    • It is the most exquisite and intricately designed handwoven textile.

  • Dindigul locks
    • These locks are made in Dindigul city which is called Lock city are very famous for their superior quality and durability.
    • In this region, there is an abundance of iron which encouraged the growth of the Lock Industry.
    • These locks are entirely handmade and it is made of brass and iron.
    • Many Government institutions and high profile businesses use Dindigul lock as it is considered high safety and foolproof.

  • Rasagola (Odisha)
    • It is a dessert popular in India and South Asian Diaspora.
    • In India, there are primarily two types of Rasagolas. One is Odisha rasagola and another one in Bengali roshogollas.
    • In 2016, West Bengal Government applied for GI Tag for it Rasagola, locally named Banglar Rosogolla.
    • In 2017 West Bengal got Geographical indication status for its Rasagola.
    • In 2018, Odisha got Geographical indication status for its Rasagola locally named Odia Rasgulla.

  • Kandangi Sarees
  • Tirur Betel Leaf
  • Mizo Puanchei
  • Kondapalli Toys
Expansion and consolidation of British rule Upsc

Expansion and consolidation of British rule Upsc

Battle of Plassey to Annexation of Punjab in 1849. They used several methods apart from war, like the Subsidiary Alliance and the doctrine of Lapse to expand and consolidate their rule in India.

European Trading Centre's in India Map
European Trading Centre’s in India

Conquest of Bengal

Siraj-ud-daullah (Nawab of Bengal)
Siraj-ud-daullah (Nawab of Bengal)

In 1717, the East India company got Farman from Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar. This Farman Granted English East India Company, the freedom to export and import without paying tax in Bengal.

This Farman created a huge loss of revenue for the Nawab of Bengal and created conflicts with the East India Company.

This Royal Farman also gave East India Company other rights such as levying Heavy taxes on Indian Goods entering Calcutta (Bengal).

Also, the East India Company built Fortification, which created a rivalry between Nawab of Bengal and the East India Company.

The East India Company planned to overthrow the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daulla by joining hands with several members inside the Nawabs court.

Example: Mir Jafar, Mir Bakshi, Manik Chand (officer in charge of Calcutta), Amir Chand (Big Banker in Bengal), and Khadim Khan (One of Commander in Nawab in Bengal).

Battle of Plassey (1757)

Nawab of Bengal and East India Company fought in the Battle of Plassey. Mir Jafar and Rai Durlabh took no part in the fighting and left the battlefield.

Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulla was captured and killed. Mir Jafar was made Nawab of Bengal. Then Mir Jafar was deposed in 1760, as he did not fulfil the demands of English.

Then Mir Qasim, son-in-law of Mir Jafar was made Nawab of Bengal.

Battle of Buxar (1764)

Mir Qasim too was not loyal to the East India Company. War broke out between East India Company and Mir Qasim.

Mir Qasim went to Awadh and formed an alliance with Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-ud-Daula, and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam. This alliance fought together against the East India Company in1764 at Buxar.

East India Company won the battle of Buxar. The treaty of Allahabad was signed between the Mughal emperor Shah Alam-II and Rober Clive of East India Company, as a result of the Battle of Buxar on 22 October 1764.

Based on this East India Company was granted Diwani Rights. Diwani rights is the right to collect revenue in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. This victory gave East India Company as political masters of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa.

Anglo-Mysore War

Next to English East India company turned toward Mysore state. Already there was a rivalry between Mysore, Nizam of Hyderabad, and Marathas.

This rivalry gave the English an opportunity to interfere and expand their political dominance. This rivalry resulted in four wars between the East India Company and the Mysore state called as Anglo Mysore Wars.

First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69)

Haider Ali got some success against the British.

Second Anglo Mysore War(1780-1784)

Proved indecisive, ended with the treaty of Mangalore.

Third Anglo Mysore War(1789-1792)

Tipu Sultan invaded Travancore, which is an English Ally. Tipu Sultan was defeated in the Third Mysore War, forcing him to sign the Treaty of Seringapatam.

According to the treaty, Tipu had to surrender half of his kingdom to the East India Company and to its allies.

Fourth Anglo Mysore War(1799)

British Defeated Tipu Sultan. Tipu died while defending the capital. Half of Mysore Territory was divided between the British and Nizam

Conquest of Marathas

The conquest of the Maratha Empire was called as Anglo-Maratha War.

First Anglo Maratha War (1775-1782)

British were defeated and the Treaty of Salbai was signed.

British Won Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1806) and the third Anglo-Maratha war (1817-1818).

The reason for Maratha’s defeat is a mutual conflict between the Marathas chiefs.

The annexation of Awadh (1856)

Awadh was annexed to the English East India Company on the basis of ‘Misgovernance‘. English accused Nawab of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah of Misgovernance.

Awadh was annexed by Lord Dalhousie in 1856. Nawab of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah was the only ruler to be deposed on basis of ‘Misgovernance‘.

Sind Conquest (1843)

Since the 18th century, Sindh was being ruled by some Baluchi Chiefs collectively known as “Amir of Sind”.

General Charles Napier captured the Sindh province in 1843 through the battle of Miani.

Punjab Wars

With the Death of Ranjith Singh in 1839, the Conquest of Punjab was completed in 1849. There was two war fought between Sikhs and the English.

First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-1846)

British defeated Sikh troops and the treaty of Lahore was signed. To take revenge for the first Anglo-Sikh war, Sikhs created a number of revolts that lead to the second Anglo-Sikh war.

Sikhs were defeated, whole Punjab went under British Control. By this the conquest of India is complete.


The British were able to expand and consolidate their rule of India, main because India was not united. They were divided mainly based on religion, caste, linguistics, etc. The English signed several treaties, and military and trade alliances with many small, large, and independent states.

Also the British were very effective at infiltrating their internal affairs and gradually took control over the entire Indian subcontinent.