Acheulian and Sohanian Culture in India Upsc

Two independent cultures or traditions of hand axe (Acheulian) and pebble flake (Sohanian) industries are found in India, based on research.

The Acheulian industry mainly has hand axes and cleavers, whereas the Sohan industry uses only choppers and chopping tools. The Sohan industry gets its name from the Sohan river valley of Pakistan.

According to the latest research, Acheulian and Sohanian are no different they are the same.

acheulian and sohanian
Acheulian culture distribution across Asia, Africa, and Europe By No machine-readable author provided. 120 assumed (based on copyright claims). – No machine-readable source was provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims)., CC BY-SA 3.0,

Sohanian Culture

Sohanian or Sohan culture is an archaeological culture that belongs to Lower Paleolithic. It is located in and around the Siwalik Hills.

Sohar sites are found in today’s India, Pakistan, and Nepal. The artifacts from Sohanian Culture were made of quartzite pebbles, cobbles, and boulders.

This raw material was derived from various fluvial sources found on the Siwalik landscapes. The things comprise choppers, discoid, scrapers, cores, and flakes of different types.

Acheulian culture in India

It is a lower Palaeolithic tool culture including the hand axe.

The Acheulian sites in India are densely found in central India and the southern part of the Eastern Ghats.

Sites are found in India are Western Rajasthan, Mewar Plain, Chota Nagpur Plateau, Saurashtra, and the Eastern Ghats near the north of Cauvery river.


Where is the Acheulian culture site located?

This culture is found mostly from the Siwalik hills in North to near Chennai in the south in the coastal region, northeast India, and in the Gangal plains.

What is the Acheulean tradition?

This culture is the first standardized tradition of toolmaking of the Early Humans. These tool kits differ in tool types, which reflects the changing environment.

What is the typical tool of Soan culture?

The early soan main uses pebble tools. It is made of rounded pebbles. Also, minimum flaking is found on them to get the shape of a chopper.

Who were the makers of the Acheulian handaxes?

These were produced by two extinct species i.e H.Erectus and H.Heidelbergensis.

How long were Acheulean Handaxes used?

These were used between 1.6 million years ago to 100,000 years ago. This makes these Handaxes the most advanced technology developed by early humans.

How did the Acheulean toolmaking tradition get its name?

It got its name from a site named Saint-Acheul in northern France, which refers to a range of Lower Paleolithic tool-making traditions across Africa-Europe-Asia.

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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