Archimedes’ principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces. Archimedes’ principle is a law of physics fundamental to fluid mechanics.
To describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.
Snell’s law states that the ratio of the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction is equivalent to the ratio of phase velocities in the two media, or equivalent to the reciprocal of the ratio of the indices of refraction:
n1/n2 = sin α2/sin α1
Law of floatation
Any object, totally or partially immersed in a fluid or liquid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Newtons 3 Laws
Newtons First Law
Every object continues its state of rest or state of motion until an external force acts on it.
Newtons Second Law
The Rate of Change of the momentum of a body is equal to magnitude and direction to the force imposed on it.
F = ma
Newtons Third Law
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Law of Conservation of Energy
The law of conservation of energy says that “Energy is neither created nor destroyed“. The energy changes from one form to another form.
Boyle’s Law is gas law, “The absolute pressure exerted by a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the volume it occupies if the temperature and amount of gas remain unchanged within a closed system“.
Charles’ Law -1
The volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature and if the pressure remains constant.
That is the volume of a gas at constant temperature is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.
Dobereiner law of triads
Law of Octaves
“If the Chemical elements are arranged as per increasing atomic weight, those with similar physical and chemical properties occur after each interval of seven elements“
Mendeleev’s periodic law
Kepler’s First Law
“The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of two foci.”
Kepler’s Second Law
“A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.”
Kepler’s Third Law
“The ratio of the square of an object’s orbital period with the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit is the same for all objects orbiting the same primary.”
The universal law of gravitation
Newton’s universal law of gravitation states that ” Every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers“.
Bernoulli’s Principle states that, In fluid dynamics, “an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in static pressure or a decrease in the fluid’s potential energy“.
If the distances from the object to the lens and from the lens to the image are S1 and S2 respectively, for a lens of a negligible thickness (thin lens), in air, the distances are related by the thin lens formula.
1/f = 1/S1 + 1/S2
“The force of attraction or repulsion acting along a straight line between two electric charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely to the square of the distance between them“
“The current flowing through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points and inversely proportional to the Resistance“.
I = V/R
“In a fluid (gas or liquid) at rest in a closed container, a pressure change in one part is transmitted without loss to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the container.“
Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain an equal number of molecules.
The specific number of molecules in one gram-mole of a substance, defined as the molecular weight in grams, is 6.02214076 × 1023, a quantity called Avogadro’s number, or the Avogadro constant.
“It is a random motion of particles suspended in liquid or gas, that results with the fast-moving atoms or molecules in the gas or liquid. Example: Motion of pollen grains on still water and motion of dust particle in-room seen in sunlight.
Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of photons by matter, meaning that there is both an exchange of energy and a change in the light’s direction.