A Detailed Study of Crops in India for Upsc

Crops in India

Farming in India is mostly food crops. Foods include Rice, Jowar, Wheat, Bajra, Maize, Barley, Ragi, Gram, and Tur.


Rice is an indigenous crop in India and India is the second-largest rice producer in the world after China. It is mainly grown in tropical areas, where the mean temperature is 24 C and annual rainfall of 150 cm, and High Humidity.

Deep fertile, clay, or loamy soils suited for rice cultivation.

It is sown in three methods.

i) Broadcasting

ii) Plough or drilling

iii) Transplanting

Due to the use of HYV seeds such as CRR 451, CR Dhan 205, AR Dhan 306, etc many indigenous seeds variety disappeared.

Major Rice Producing States in India

Most rice-producing states in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Assam, and Haryana.

major rice producing states in india
Rice production in India map


A second most important crop in the country. Account for more than 22% of the total area and 34 % of the total food production grains in the country.

It requires a temperature of 10-15 degrees Celsius while sowing and 20-25 degree Celsius at the ripening time.

This rabi crop requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine at the ripening time and also it requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season.

The two important wheat-growing zones in Indias are the Ganga-Satluj plains in the North-West and the Black Soil Region of the Deccan.

Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Punjab, and Madhya Pradesh account for 85% of India’s wheat production. Black soil regions Deccan such as Maharashtra and Gujarat also produce Wheat.

Wheat cultivation map of India
Wheat producing states in india

Wheat producing states in India on map

Uttar Pradesh

This state of India produces around 35 million metric tons of wheat. Wheat is the most important food crop of the state, as result, it contributes around 32% of the total wheat production in the country.

Wheat is cultivated in around 96 Lakh hectares. And it produces around 3090 kg per hectare and the main species of wheat cultivated is Triticum aestivum.


Punjab produces around 140 lakh metric tons of wheat, which is around 17% of India’s total wheat production. Sangrur district of Punjab produces maximum in the state of Punjab.

This state produces around 143 Kg per hectare.


Madhya Pradesh





As an Indigenous crop of Africa, it is the third most important food in India. It grows in adverse climatic conditions.

It is cheap food with a lot of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, minerals, and vitamins. Due to cheap prices, it is food for the poor and fodder for animals. Produced in Peninsular, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka.


It is from Africa and serves as the staple food for the poor and fodder for animals. Its stalks are used for thatching purposes.

It is a crop in the drying region. Largely produced in Maharashtra, Haryana, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh.


It is an important cereal for the poor also used to make Barley water, Beer, and Whiskey. Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are major Producing states.


It is the major source of protein for vegetarians. These are mostly leguminous.

Its husk is used as fodder for cattle. These leguminous plants help to fix nitrogen in the soil usually rotated with other crops.

Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra are major producing states.

* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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