- Mughal Empire history was started in India subcontinent by Babur after defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat.
- This Emperor lasted for about three centuries from 1526 to 1857.
- The empire declined after the Aurangzeb in 1707.
- The emperor officially ended after 100 years after the death of Aurangzeb to the East India Company.
First Mughal emperor in India
Mughal emperor Akbar
Emperor Akbar (1556–1605)
- During Humayun’s wanderings in the Rajputana desert, his wife gave birth to a son, Jalaluddin, known as Akbar, in 1542.
- Akbar was crowned at the age of fourteen.
- At the time of Akbar’s ascension, the Afghans and Rajputs were still powerful and posed a great challenge.
- Yet he had a guardian and protector in Bairam Khan.
Second Battle of Panipat
- Hemu, the Hindu general of the displaced Afghan king Adil Shah, the successor of Sher Shah, induced the king to permit him to lead the Afghan army against the Mughals.
- Encouraged by the king, Hemu first took Gwalior, expelling the Mughal governor.
- Then he marched on Agra and captured it without any resistance.
- Hemu’s generosity helped him to overcome potential enemies when he took Delhi.
- In November 1556 Akbar marched towards Delhi to meet the forces of Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat.
- An arrow struck the eye of Hemu when the battle was likely to end in his favour.
- The leaderless Afghan army became demoralised and the Mughal forces emerged victoriously.
- Hemu was captured and executed.
- This victory made Akbar the sovereign of Agra and Delhi and re-establish the Mughal empire.
Aurangzeb’s Deccan Policy
Art and architecture of mughal empire
Last Mughal ruler
- The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II.
- He was also known as Zafar, who died in a British prison in Burma in 1862.
- He was remembered for his role in Great Revolt of 1857, which was considered as first war of Independence.