Physical quality of life index Upsc

Pqli was developed and originally conceived by Jan Tinbergen who is the first noble economics laureate in the mid-1970s. Prepared every year by the overseas department council by Morris David Morris, a private US agency.

Morris David Morris created Pqli that assessed the condition in the nation from factors such as Life Expectancy, Basic Literacy rate, and infant mortality rate.

How is PQLI Constructed?

The index is based on 3 parameters:

  1. Life Expectancy
  2. Infant Mortality
  3. Literacy

Countries are ranked on an index value of 1-100 for each of these three and it has been observed that countries having higher per capita income are generally on higher ranking and value of the index.

Most developed countries are found to be having PQLI values over 90 while developing countries on average are below 40.

Some developing countries have a much higher index value above 80 though their per capita income is low which shows that they have used their resources for the better life of their people.

If the indicators of life expectancy and literacy rate are positive, the performance in Pqli is maximum and the worst is the minimum.

Limitation of Pqli

Pqli does not take into account many factors such as employment, income, justice, social security etc. It just takes the average of Literacy, Life expectancy and infant mortality.

According to Ray(2008), Human Development Index (HDI) works better than Pqli. This is because HDI takes both the physical as well as the financial attributes of development.


1. Pqli was developed by?

PQLI(Physical Quality of Life Index) was developed by economist Morris David Morris and his colleagues at the US Overseas Development council.

2. What is the Value of PQLI?

The value of Pqli lies between 0-100. Higher is good and lower is worst.

3. What is the difference between HDI and PQLI?

HDI and Pqli are almost similar. The main difference is there is an inclusion of income in HDI and income is excluded in Pqli. HDI represent both the physical and financial attributes. On the other hand, Pqli only take the account of physical aspects.



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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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