Problems faced by farmers in India Upsc

Problems faced by Indian farmers

Small and Fragmented Land Holding

Serious in densely populated areas. About 67% of operational land holding is marginal land which is less than one hectare.

High Cost of Inputs

Good quality HYV seed is costly, poor farmers cannot afford such seeds.

Infertile Soil

Thousand of years of agriculture made soil lose its fertility, resulting in low productivity.


Insufficient water is a serious problem. Irrigated land is only one-third and in order to make agriculture much more reliable, an irrigation facility needs to be developed.


Agriculture in most parts of the country follows trading methods, manual labor, etc. Usage of advanced tools is necessary.

The disadvantage of Mechanization is a lot of people depend on Manual labor agriculture work, so the effect of mechanization is job loss.

Soil Erosion

Large fertile land loss through erosion caused by wind and water and such areas much be treated and restored to it fertile again.

Agricultural Marketing

Agricultural marketing is one of the important problems faced by Indian farmers.

Local farmers need traders and middlemen to sell the products. This makes the loss of revenue to the farmers and fluctuation in prices makes things worse. Proper marketing is necessary to increase the profit.

Inadequate Storage Facilities

Farmers are forced to sell the products immediately after harvest due to inadequate or no storage facilities.

Lack of Transport

Cheap modes of transport such as railways are not available to most parts of the countries.

Scarcity of capital

Agriculture requires lots of capital, loans to buy seeds, machinery, and transport to market.

Intensive Farming

Continuous farming and high usage of chemical fertilizer and pesticides, make the soil lose its fertility and after some years the land becomes barren.

Failure of Monsoons

The most important problem faced by Indian farmers is the failure of Monsoons. States like Tamil Nadu, lack water resources, and their drinking and agriculture fail if the monsoon failed.

Monsoon is an important factor in agriculture in India.

problems faced by indian farmers
Problems faced by farmers in India

Lack of Irrigation

Due to improper irrigation facilities, farmers face storage of water for crops. This forces farmers to spend lakhs of rupees, to dug, bore wells, and tube well. This also exploits groundwater resources.

Irrigated crops require several tons of water to produce one ton of product. This actually creates loss to the farmer in the form of electricity charges.

Some states in India, provide free electricity. This is a relief to the farmers. But this causes exploitation of groundwater resources.

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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