Reflection and refraction of light diagram

Refraction of Light 

When the light is from one medium to medium with different optical densities, the path of light gets bent or deviated from the original path. This phenomenon is called the Refraction of Light.

Causes of Refraction of Light

Light rays get deviated from the original path when entering into another medium with different optical densities.

This deviation is due to a change of speed of light when entering into another medium. 

This is because every medium has its unique optical density that affects the speed of light.

The velocity of light in low optical density or rarer medium is higher than the high optical density or denser medium.

Refraction of Light from a plane transparent Surface

When the light goes from an optically rarer medium to a denser medium, it curves toward the normal.

Ray optic diagram for refraction of light
Ray optic diagram for refraction of light

When the light goes from a denser to the rarer medium it turns away from the normal.

bending of light when its enter one medium to another medium with different optical density
Light enters from air to water shows light is bending

A light incident normally on a denser medium goes without any divergence.

The Laws of Refraction of Light

The incident ray, the refracted ray, and the normal, all lie in the same plane.

The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant for a light of a given colour and for the given pair of media and this law is also called Snell’s law of refraction.” (Tamil Nadu Samacheer Kalvi #)

If i is the angle of incidence and r is the angle of refraction, then

Sin i / sin r = Constant.

This constant is called the refractive index of the second medium with respect to the first medium.

It is represented by 𝝁.

Note that the refractive index has no unit; it is the ratio of two similar quantities.

* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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