Ukraine Russia conflict summary Upsc

Ukraine Russia conflict summary

Ukraine Russia conflict summary Upsc
Ukraine Russia conflict summary Upsc

A Small region in eastern Ukraine known as Donbas adjoins the Russian border. This region has frequent Military conflicts. In region was incorporated into the newly created Ukrainian People’s Republic in 1918, after the fall of the Russian Empire.

After this Bolsheviks were fighting the civil war against the remnants of the old regime. After this Donbas became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

World War-2

During World War-2, the Nazis took control of the Donbas region. During this conflict 3,00,000 civilians of the Donbas were killed. After World War-2, the Red Army took over the control of Donbas.

The disintegration of Soviet Union

The Soviet Union of Russia was disintegrated during 1991. As a result, the Soviet Union was broken into several countries. As the result the regions such as Donetsk, Luhansk Oblast went to the Ukrainian nation.

But today, Donetsk, Luhansk became self-declared republics run rebels. These rebels were backed Russian Federation.

Ukraine Russia conflict overview

The Ukraine Russian conflict started in 2013 with a Euromaidan protest in Ukraine. The Pro-western protesters forced President Viktor Yanukovych to resign. Finally, he resigned in 2014. After, this counter-protest broke in the Crimean Peninsula and Donbas.

In Crimea and Donbas regions, the majority of people speak Russian.

Russia annexation of Crimea

Russia annexed Crimea in 2014. Immediately after the annexation, protests were started in Donbas. These protests become Armed rebellions. Also in 2014, separatists declared self-rule in Donetsk and Luhansk.

The western countries and Ukraine accused Russia of supplying Arms and Weapons to the region to fight against Ukraine’s Military personnel.

Pro Russian Rebels in Donetsk

Russia’s Statement on Insurgency

But Russian said that they have nothing to do with Insurgency.

“Was forced to defend the Russian speaking population in the Donbas”

Vladimir Putin

The largest minority in Donbas is Russian language speaking people. But the largest people in Ukraine are ethnic Ukrainians. Also, 70% of the population across different ethnic groups speaks Russian.

The Russian Official statement said that “Post Yanukovych regime in Kiev or Kyiv is discriminatory to Russian-speaking people in the east.

Minsk Protocol

Ukraine Military was unable to defeat the Russian-backed rebels. As a result, Ukraine agreed to the Minsk Protocol 2014. This Protocol earlier had talks between Ukraine, Rebels, and Russia. Minsk protocol was mediated by France and Germany.

This agreement called for an Immediate Ceasefire in the region. But this agreement collapsed. After the collapse of the Minsk protocol, the Ukraine Trilateral Contact Group comprised of representatives of Russia, Ukraine, and OSCE called for another summit.

This summit was organized in the Belarusian capital in 2015, February and was called Minsk-II.

Minsk-II Protocol

As per Minsk-II, protocol the rebellion has to cease fire immediately and hold talks with Ukraine regarding the local elections. Also, Ukraine has given more powers to the Donbas republic by decentralization and through constitutional reforms. Also to announce an amnesty to rebellions.

The Rebels have to allow the Ukraine troops to take control over the Donbas region that shares the border with Russia.

But these terms were never implemented.

USA Assistance to Ukraine

The War Conflicts continued in this region. But Ukraine started to advance its military to fight against the Russians. The US and other western countries provided financial aid and training to Ukraine Military. Also in 2014, the US has committee over 2.5 billion USD to Ukraine.

Russia’s Move

Russia changed its approach to the crisis, as the Minsk protocol was unsuccessful and Volodymyr Zelensky, the president of Ukraine became closer to the West. The west continued to assist Ukraine. Also, the Russian troops were backed away from the region, after the presence of NATO, in the Black sea.

Also, Russian senses the great threat as Ukraine joined NATO and got advanced weapons from the west.


Donbas region with roughly 4 million people under great threat as the rivalry between the great powers in Europe is unfolding. This happens to be the most dangerous situation between Russia and US since the Cold War.


* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
%d bloggers like this: