NCERT Geography Notes for UPSC

Physical Geography

UPSC Polity Syllabus for Prelims

Tnpsc Group-I Mains syllabus and Notes

Tnpsc Group-I Main Syllabus and Notes

PAPER – I – General studies


Advent of European invasionExpansion and consolidation of British ruleEarly uprising against British rule1857 RevoltIndian National CongressGrowth of militant movements ‐ Different modes of agitations –Emergence of national leaders ‐ Gandhi, Nehru, Tagore, Netaji, Moulana Abulkalam Azad, Ambedkar and PatelEra of different Acts & Pacts Second World War & final phase struggleCommunalism led to partition.

Effect of British rule on socio‐economic factorsNational renaissance – Socio religious reform movements.

India since independenceCharacteristics of Indian cultureUnity in diversity ‐ Race, Language, Religion Custom ‐ India: a secular state ‐Organizations for fine arts, dance, drama and music.

Role of Tamil Nadu in freedom struggleBharathiar, VOC, Subramania Siva, Rajaji, Periyar and others – Political parties and Welfare schemes.

Latest diary of events: National and International ‐ National symbols– Eminent personalities & places in news ‐ Sports & Games ‐Books & Authors ‐ Awards & Honours ‐ Cultural panorama ‐ Latest historical events – Latest terminology ‐ Appointments ‐ who is who?


Population Explosion ‐ Unemployment issues in India & Tamil NaduChild Abuse & Child LabourPovertyRural and Urban Sanitation –Illiteracy.

Women Empowerment ‐ Role of the Government in Women Empowerment – Social injustice to Women ‐ Domestic violence, Dowry menace, Sexual assault – Role of women and women’s organisations

Social changes in India – Urbanization and its impact on the society– Problems and remedies ‐ Impact of violence on Society – Religious violence, Terrorism and Communal violence ‐ Regional Disparities ‐Problems of Minorities ‐ Human Rights issues.

Education – Linkage between Education and Social Development ‐Community Development Programmes ‐ Employment Guarantee Schemes‐ Self Employment and Entrepreneurship Development ‐ Role of N.G.Os in Social Welfare – Government Policy on Health.

Welfare Schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Central and State governments and their performance.

Current Affairs


PAPER – II – General studies


Constitution of India: Historical backgroundMaking of the Indian ConstitutionPreambleSalient features of the Indian Constitution Fundamental Rights and Fundamental DutiesDirective Principles of State PolicySchedules to the Indian Constitution.

Union Executive: President, Vice – President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers, Attorney General of India.

Union Legislature: Parliament: Lok – Sabha and Rajya – Sabha – Composition, Powers, Functions and Legislative procedures.

Union Judiciary: Structure, Powers and Functions of the Supreme CourtJudicial Review Latest Verdicts.

State Executive: Governor, Chief Minister – Speaker and Council of Ministers , Advocate General of the State.

State Legislature: State Legislative Assembly – Organization, Powers and Functions.

State Judiciary: Organisation, Powers and Functions of High Courts, District Courts and Subordinate Courts.

Local Government: Historical Development – Features and working of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992.

Union Territories: Evolution of States and Union Territories – Administration of Union Territories.

Federalism in India: Centre-State Relations – Centre-State Administrative Relations – Centre-State Legislative Relations and Centre-State Financial Relations.

Civil Services in India: Historical background – Classification of Civil Services – Recruitment & Training of Civil Servants.

State Services: Classification of State Services and Recruitment.

Official Language: Constitutional provision – Official Language Act, VIII Schedule to the Constitution.

Amendments: Major Amendments to the Indian Constitution.

Special Status to Jammu & Kashmir: Art 370.

Political Parties: National & Regional parties, Pressure Groups, Interest Groups, Public Opinion, Mass Media, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and their role.

Issue Areas in Indian Administration: Corruption in India – Anti -Corruption MeasuresCVC – Lok Adalats – Ombudsman – RTI Act -Minister – Secretary Relationship – Generalist Vs. Specialist controversy.

Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Bodies – Composition, Powers and Functions.

Profile of States – Defence, National Security and Terrorism – World Organisations – Pacts and Summits.

India’s Foreign Policy: Foreign Affairs with Special emphasis on India’s relations with neighbouring countries and in the region – Security and defence related issues – Nuclear Policy – Issues and conflicts.

The Indian Diaspora and its contribution to India and to the World.

Current Affairs


Science and Technology – Role, Achievements and Developments -Their applications and effects in everyday life ‐ Energy ‐ Conventional and Non-conventional – Self-sufficiency ‐ Oil exploration ‐ Defence Research Organizations and other science and technology institutions – Ocean Research and Development – Role and Functions. Advancements in the fields of I.T., Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-Technology ‐ Mobile Communication – Remote sensing and its benefits.

Health and hygiene ‐ Human diseases – Prevention and remedies ‐ Communicable diseases and non‐communicable diseases – Genetic Engineering – Organ transplantation – Stem cell TechnologyMedical Tourism – Advancements in Horticulture & Agriculture.

Achievements of Indians in the fields of Science and Technology.

Latest inventions in science & technology.


1) Tamil Society: Origin and expansion.
2) Art and Culture: Literature, Music, Film, Drama, Architecture, Sculpture, Paintings and Folk Arts.
3) Socio – economic history of Tamil Nadu from Sangam age to till date.
4) Growth of Rationalist, Dravidian movements in Tamil Nadu -Their role in the socio – economic development of Tamil Nadu.
5) Social and cultural life of contemporary Tamils: Caste, Religion, Women, Politics, Education, Economy, Trade and relationship
with other countries.
6) Tamil and other Disciplines: Mass Media, Computer etc.

PAPER – III ‐ General studies


Location – Physical featuresMajor RiversWeather & Climate -Monsoon, Rainfall ‐ Natural resources:- Soil, Water, Forest, Minerals and Wildlife – Agricultural pattern – Livestock – Fisheries – Industries; Major industries – Growth and Development – Social- Cultural geography – Population: Growth, Density and Distribution – Racial, linguistic and major tribes.

Oceanography – Bottom relief features of Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.

Basics of Geospatial Technology: Geographical Information System (GIS) and Bottom relief features of Ocean (GNSS).
Map: Geographical landmarks – India and its neighbours.

Current Affairs


Ecology: Structure and function of Ecosystem – Ecological succession -Biodiversity conservation: Types – Biodiversity Hot Spots in India – Biodiversity : Significance and Threats – In situ and Ex situ conservation measures – Roles of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) & Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

Environmental Pollution and Management: Air, Water, Soil, Thermal and Noise pollution and control strategies – Solid and Hazardous waste management – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): Steps in EIA process – Environmental Clearance – Environmental Auditing.

Climate Change: Global Environmental Issues and Management –Changes in monsoon pattern in Tamil Nadu and India – Environmental consequences of climate change and mitigation measures – Clean and Green Energy – Environmental Sustainability.

Environmental Laws, Policies & Treaties in India and Global scenario -Natural calamities and Disaster Management – Environmental Health and Sanitation.

Current Affairs


Features of Indian Economy – Demographical profile of India –National Income – Capital formation – NEP (New Economic Policy) – NITI AYOG – National Development Council.

Agriculture – Role of Agriculture – Land reforms – New Agricultural Strategy – Green Revolution – Price Policy, Public Distribution System (PDS), Subsidy, Food Security– Agricultural Marketing, Crop Insurance, Labour – Rural credit & indebtness – WTO & Agriculture.

Industry – Growth ‐ Policy – Role of public sector and disinvestment– Privatisation and Liberalization – Public Private Partnership (PPP) – SEZs. – MSMEs. – Make in India.

Infrastructure in India – Transport System – Energy – Power – Communication – Social Infrastructure – Science & Technology – R&D.

Banking & Finance – Banking, Money & Finance – Central Bank – Commercial Bank – NBFIs. – Stock Market – Financial Reforms – Financial Stability – Monetary Policy – RBI & Autonomy.

Public Finance – Sources of RevenueTax & Non-Tax Revenue Canons of taxationGST – Public expenditure – Public debt – Finance CommissionFiscal Policy.

Issues in Indian Economy – Poverty & inequality – Poverty alleviation programmes – MGNREGA – New Welfare programmes for rural povertyUnemploymentInflation Inflation targeting – Sustainable economic growth – Gender issues.

India’s Foreign Trade – BOP, EX-IM Policy, FOREX Market, FDI; Globalization & its impact – Global economic crisis & impact on Indian economy.

International Agencies – IMF (International Monetary Fund)World BankBRICS SAARCASEAN.

Tamil Nadu Economy & Issues – Gross State Domestic ProductTrends in State’s economic growth – Demographic profile of Tamil Nadu – AgricultureIndustry & entrepreneurship development in Tamil Nadu Infrastructure Power, Transportation systems – Social Infrastructure – SHGs. & Rural Women empowerment – Rural poverty & unemployment – Environmental issues – Regional economic disparities Local Government – Recent government welfare programmes.

Current Affairs

Tnpsc Group-I Syllabus for Prelims along with Reference and Notes

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(i) Scientific Knowledge and Scientific temper – Power of Reasoning Rote Learning Vs Conceptual Learning Science as a tool to understand the past, present and future.

Continue reading Tnpsc Group-I Syllabus for Prelims along with Reference and Notes

Urbanization and its impact on the society Tnpsc

Urbanization is the process of people moving from rural to urban areas. It is a global phenomenon that is happening at an accelerated pace. In India, the urban population is expected to reach 600 million by 2030.

Urbanization has a significant impact on society, both positive and negative.

Positive impacts of urbanization:

  • Economic growth: Urban areas are more productive than rural areas, due to the concentration of people, businesses, and resources.
  • Job creation: Urbanization creates jobs in a variety of sectors, such as manufacturing, services, and information technology.
  • Increased access to education and healthcare: Urban areas have better access to education and healthcare facilities than rural areas.
  • Improved infrastructure: Urban areas have better infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, and public transportation.
  • Cultural diversity: Urban areas are more diverse than rural areas, which can lead to a more tolerant and accepting society.

Negative impacts of urbanization:

  • Poverty: Urbanization can lead to poverty, as people move to cities in search of jobs but are unable to find them.
  • Slums: Urbanization can lead to the growth of slums, where people live in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions.
  • Crime: Urbanization can lead to an increase in crime, as people are more likely to commit crimes in crowded and anonymous environments.
  • Pollution: Urbanization can lead to air pollution, water pollution, and noise pollution.
  • Traffic congestion: Urbanization can lead to traffic congestion, as more people are using cars and public transportation.
  • Social inequality: Urbanization can lead to social inequality, as the rich and the poor live in separate areas.

The impact of urbanization on society depends on a number of factors, such as the pace of urbanization, the planning of urban areas, and the availability of resources. When urbanization is well-planned and managed, it can have a positive impact on society. However, when urbanization is unplanned andunmanaged, it can have a negative impact on society.

Neon on the periodic table

Neon is a chemical element with the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. It is a noble gas, meaning that it is chemically inert and does not react with other elements. Neon is the fifth most abundant element in the universe, and it is the second most abundant noble gas in Earth’s atmosphere.

On the periodic table, neon is located in group 18 (or group VIIIA) and period 2. This means that it has 8 electrons in its valence shell, and it is a member of the noble gas family.

Neon has a very low melting point (-248.62°C) and a very low boiling point (-246.04°C). This means that it is a gas at room temperature. Neon is also a very light element, with a density of 0.9002 g/L.

Neon is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. It is also non-flammable and non-toxic. Neon is often used in neon signs, because it glows a bright red-orange color when it is excited by electricity. Neon is also used in lasers and other electronic devices.

Here are some other interesting facts about neon:

  • Neon was discovered in 1898 by William Ramsay and Morris Travers.
  • The name “neon” comes from the Greek word “neos,” which means “new.”
  • Neon is the rarest of the noble gases in Earth’s atmosphere, making up only about 0.002% of the gas.
  • Neon is the second most abundant element in the Sun, after hydrogen.
  • Neon is used in a variety of applications, including neon signs, lasers, and electronic devices.

Daily life new england colonies

Daily life in the New England colonies was largely dictated by the need to survive in a harsh environment. The colonists were mostly farmers, and their lives revolved around the seasons and the weather. They also had to contend with the threat of Native American attacks.


The colonists worked long hours, both in the fields and in their homes. Men would typically work from sunrise to sunset, while women would work in the home and help with the crops. Children would also help out with the chores, as soon as they were old enough.


The colonists’ diet was simple, but it was nutritious. They ate a lot of bread, beans, and vegetables. They also hunted and fished, and they sometimes supplemented their diet with wild fruits and nuts.


Religion was an important part of life in the New England colonies. The colonists were mostly Puritans, and they believed that it was their duty to live a godly life. They attended church regularly, and they read the Bible often.


Education was also important in the New England colonies. The colonists believed that everyone should be able to read the Bible, so they established schools in most towns. Children would typically attend school for a few years, and they would learn how to read, write, and do basic math.


The colonists had few opportunities for leisure, but they did enjoy some activities. They would often gather together to socialize, and they would sometimes play games or sing songs. They also enjoyed reading, and they would often read the Bible or other religious texts.


The colonists faced many challenges in their daily lives. They had to contend with the harsh climate, the threat of Native American attacks, and the lack of resources. However, they were a resilient people, and they were able to overcome these challenges and build a new life in the New World.

Here are some additional details about daily life in the New England colonies:

  • Housing: The colonists’ homes were simple, but they were sturdy and well-built. They were typically made of wood, and they had thatched roofs.
  • Transportation: The colonists traveled by foot, horseback, or boat. They also used sleds in the winter.
  • Communication: The colonists communicated with each other by word of mouth, or by sending letters. They also used smoke signals to communicate over long distances.
  • Government: The colonies were governed by a system of town meetings. The colonists would gather together to discuss important matters, and they would vote on decisions.

Daily life in the New England colonies was a challenge, but it was also a time of great opportunity. The colonists were able to build a new life for themselves in the New World, and they laid the foundation for the United States of America.

5 importance of science in our daily life

Here are 5 importance of science in our daily life:

  1. Improves our quality of life. Science has led to many technological advances that have made our lives easier, including the development of antibiotics, vaccines, and treatments for diseases. It has also led to the development of new products and services that have improved our quality of life, such as smartphones, computers, and air conditioning.
  2. Helps us understand the world around us. Science helps us understand the natural world and how it works. This knowledge can be used to solve problems, make predictions, and make informed decisions. For example, science has helped us understand the causes of climate change and how to mitigate its effects.
  3. Creates new jobs. The science field is constantly growing and evolving, which creates new job opportunities. For example, the field of biotechnology is growing rapidly, and there is a high demand for scientists and engineers with expertise in this area.
  4. Promotes innovation. Science is the foundation of innovation. New scientific discoveries often lead to new products, services, and technologies that improve our lives. For example, the development of the internet was made possible by advances in computer science and telecommunications.
  5. Enriches our culture. Science has enriched our culture in many ways. For example, scientific discoveries have inspired artists, writers, and filmmakers. Science has also given us a new way to understand the world around us, and it has helped us to appreciate the beauty of nature.

In addition to these 5, there are many other ways that science impacts our daily lives. Science is essential for our health, our economy, and our environment. It is also essential for our future. As the world becomes increasingly complex, we will need science more than ever to solve the challenges that we face.

Do people live in the sahara desert?

Yes, people live in the Sahara Desert. The Sahara is the largest desert in the world, but it is not completely uninhabited. There are an estimated 2.5 million people who live in the Sahara, most of them in Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco and Algeria.

The people who live in the Sahara have adapted to the harsh desert environment in a variety of ways. They often live in small, nomadic tribes that move from place to place in search of water and grazing land for their animals. They also have developed a variety of techniques for conserving water and building shelters that protect them from the heat and sand.

The people who live in the Sahara are a diverse group, and they speak a variety of languages. Some of the most common languages spoken in the Sahara include Arabic, Berber, and Tamasheq.

The people who live in the Sahara face a number of challenges, including the harsh climate, the lack of water, and the threat of conflict. However, they have found ways to adapt to these challenges and to build a life in the desert.

Here are some of the ways that people live in the Sahara Desert:

  • Nomads: Nomads are people who move from place to place in search of food and water. They often live in tents and travel with their animals.
  • Sedentary farmers: Sedentary farmers live in permanent settlements and grow crops. They often rely on irrigation to water their crops.
  • Traders: Traders travel through the Sahara to trade goods between different regions. They often use camels to transport their goods.
  • Herders: Herders raise livestock, such as goats, sheep, and camels. They often move their herds from place to place in search of grazing land.

The people who live in the Sahara are a resilient and resourceful group. They have found ways to live in a harsh and unforgiving environment.

Daily life of the ancient romans

The daily life of the ancient Romans varied greatly depending on their social status. The wealthy lived in luxurious homes and had access to a wide variety of amenities, while the poor lived in cramped apartments or even on the streets. However, there were some activities that were common to all Romans, regardless of their social status.

  • Morning: The day would typically start with a light breakfast, followed by a trip to the baths. The baths were an important part of Roman life, and they served not only as a place to bathe, but also as a social gathering place. After the baths, Romans would go about their daily business.
  • Work: Most Romans worked, although the type of work they did varied greatly. The wealthy owned businesses or worked as government officials, while the poor worked as farmers, laborers, or slaves.
  • Lunch: Lunch was typically a light meal, often consisting of bread and cheese.
  • Afternoon: The afternoon was often a time for leisure activities, such as attending the theater, going to the games, or simply socializing with friends and family.
  • Dinner: Dinner was the main meal of the day, and it was often a lavish affair. The wealthy would often have several courses, while the poor would typically have a simpler meal.
  • Night: After dinner, Romans would often relax by reading, writing, or playing games. They might also attend a party or go to the theater.

Of course, this is just a general overview of daily life in ancient Rome. The actual experiences of individual Romans would have varied depending on their social status, location, and personal circumstances.

Here are some additional details about daily life in ancient Rome:

  • Religion: Religion was an important part of Roman life, and most Romans would attend religious ceremonies on a regular basis. The most important Roman gods were Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.
  • Education: Education was not compulsory in ancient Rome, but it was available to those who could afford it. The wealthy would often send their children to private schools, while the poor would typically receive their education from a tutor.
  • Law: The Roman legal system was based on the principle of ius civile, which means “civil law.” This system of law was designed to protect the rights of Roman citizens, and it was based on the idea of fairness and justice.
  • Crime: Crime was a problem in ancient Rome, but the government took steps to try to keep it under control. The most common crimes were theft, assault, and murder.
  • War: The Roman Empire was constantly at war, and this had a significant impact on daily life. Soldiers were often called away to fight, and the economy could be disrupted by wars.

Daily life in ancient Rome was a complex and varied experience. It was a time of great change and upheaval, but it was also a time of great innovation and creativity. The Romans left a lasting legacy on the world, and their culture continues to influence us today.

How many valence electrons does phosphorus have?

Phosphorus has 5 valence electrons. Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell of an atom that are available to participate in chemical bonding. Phosphorus is in group 5A of the periodic table, which means that it has 5 valence electrons.

The electron configuration of phosphorus is [Ne]3s23p3. This means that the outermost shell of phosphorus has 2 electrons in the 3s orbital and 3 electrons in the 3p orbital. The 3p orbital can hold up to 6 electrons, so the 3 electrons in the 3p orbital are the valence electrons.

Phosphorus can form bonds with other atoms by sharing its valence electrons. For example, phosphorus can form a single bond with each of the 3 oxygen atoms in a molecule of phosphorus trioxide (P4O6). In this molecule, each phosphorus atom shares its 3 valence electrons with the 3 oxygen atoms, and each oxygen atom shares its 6 valence electrons with the 3 phosphorus atoms.

Impact of Social Reform Movements in the Socio-Economic Development of Tamil Nadu Tnpsc

The social reform movements that took place in Tamil Nadu in the 19th and early 20th centuries had a profound impact on the socio-economic development of the state. These movements challenged the traditional social order and paved the way for greater social and economic equality.

Education for Women

One of the most important impacts of the social reform movements was the promotion of female education. Prior to the 19th century, girls were rarely educated in Tamil Nadu. However, the social reform movements argued that education was essential for women’s empowerment and that it would help to improve the status of women in society. As a result of these efforts, female literacy rates in Tamil Nadu increased significantly from the late 19th century onwards.

Another important impact of the social reform movements was the abolition of social evils such as sati, child marriage, and untouchability.


Sati was a practice in which a widow was forced to immolate herself on her husband’s funeral pyre. Child marriage was the practice of marrying girls at a very young age.


Untouchability was a system of social stratification that discriminated against people considered to be “untouchable.” The social reform movements campaigned against these practices and helped to bring about their abolition.

The social reform movements also played a role in the development of Tamil Nadu’s economy. They promoted the development of modern industries and education, which helped to create jobs and improve the standard of living for people in the state. They also helped to raise awareness of social and economic issues, which led to the development of government policies that addressed these issues.

Overall, the social reform movements had a profound impact on the socio-economic development of Tamil Nadu. They helped to promote female education, abolish social evils, and develop the state’s economy. As a result of these efforts, Tamil Nadu has become one of the most progressive states in India.

Here are some specific examples of the impact of social reform movements in Tamil Nadu:

The Theosophical Society,

Founded by Helena Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott, was another important social reform movement in Tamil Nadu. The Theosophical Society promoted education for women and social reform.

The Self-Respect Movement

Founded by E. V. Ramasamy Naicker, was a major social reform movement in Tamil Nadu in the early 20th century. The Self-Respect Movement challenged the caste system and promoted social equality.

The Dravidian Movement

The Dravidian Movement was founded in the early 20th century by Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Naicker. The Dravidian Movement challenged the Brahminical hegemony in Tamil Nadu and promoted social equality for all castes.

Abolition of the Devadasi system

The Devadasi system is a Hindu cultural practice in which young girls are dedicated to a temple or deity. They are then considered to be the property of the temple and are often forced into prostitution. The system is considered to be a form of social slavery and has been condemned by many organizations, including the United Nations. The Devadasi system was abolished in India in 1947, with the passage of the Madras Devadasis (Prevention of Dedication) Act. However, the practice still persists in some parts of the country.

Abolition of Sanskrit for medical college seat in Tamilnadu

The requirement of Sanskrit knowledge for admission to medical colleges in Tamil Nadu was abolished in 1925. This was a major victory for the Self-Respect Movement, which had been campaigning against the practice for many years.

The requirement for Sanskrit knowledge had been in place since the 19th century. It was seen as a way to ensure that only Brahmins, who were the traditional custodians of Sanskrit, could become doctors. This effectively excluded members of other castes from the medical profession.

The Self-Respect Movement challenged the requirement of Sanskrit knowledge on the grounds that it was discriminatory and that it did not have any bearing on the ability to practice medicine. They argued that medical education should be open to all, regardless of caste or religion.

The movement’s campaign was successful, and the requirement for Sanskrit knowledge was abolished in 1925. This was a major victory for the movement and it helped to pave the way for greater social equality in Tamil Nadu.

The abolition of the Sanskrit requirement had a number of positive consequences. It opened up the medical profession to members of all castes and it helped to increase the number of doctors from non-Brahmin backgrounds. This led to a more equitable distribution of medical services in Tamil Nadu.

The abolition of the Sanskrit requirement also had a symbolic significance. It was a sign that the traditional caste system was beginning to break down and that Tamil Nadu was becoming a more open and inclusive society.

The abolition of the Sanskrit requirement is a reminder that social reform is possible and that it can have a positive impact on society. It is also a reminder that the Self-Respect Movement was a major force for social change in Tamil Nadu.

All Caste temple priests in Tamilnadu

The appointment of priests in temples in Tamil Nadu is no longer restricted to Brahmins. In 2010, the then Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi issued an order that anyone, regardless of caste, could be appointed as a priest in a temple, if they were qualified and had the necessary training. This order was challenged in court, but it was upheld by the Madras High Court in 2016.

Since then, there have been a number of cases of people from non-Brahmin castes being appointed as priests in temples in Tamil Nadu. In some cases, this has been met with resistance from the local community, but in other cases, it has been welcomed.

One of the most well-known cases of a non-Brahmin being appointed as a temple priest in Tamil Nadu is that of P. Rajagopal, who was appointed as the priest of the Meenakshi Amman Temple in Madurai in 2015. Rajagopal is from a caste that is considered to be “backward” in the Hindu caste system. His appointment was met with protests from some members of the local community, but it was ultimately upheld by the court.

The appointment of non-Brahmin priests in temples in Tamil Nadu is a sign of the changing times. It is a reflection of the growing social and religious reform movements in the state, and it is a challenge to the traditional caste system. It is also a sign of the growing empowerment of non-Brahmin communities in Tamil Nadu.

These are just a few examples of the many social reform movements that took place in Tamil Nadu in the 19th and early 20th centuries. These movements had a profound impact on the socio-economic development of the state and helped to make Tamil Nadu one of the most progressive states in India.

Human Development Indicators in Tamil Nadu and a comparative assessment across the Country Tnpsc

Tamil Nadu has consistently ranked among the top states in India in terms of human development. In the 2020 Human Development Index (HDI) released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Tamil Nadu ranked 13th among Indian states, with an HDI of 0.709. This is significantly higher than the national average of 0.645.

Some of the key human development indicators in Tamil Nadu include:

  • Life expectancy: 75.2 years (2020)
  • Literacy rate: 80.4% (2020)
  • Net enrollment ratio in primary education: 100% (2020)
  • Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths per 1,000 live births (2020)
  • Maternal mortality ratio: 77 deaths per 100,000 live births (2020)
  • GNI per capita (PPP): $15,210 (2020)

These indicators show that Tamil Nadu has made significant progress in human development over the years. However, there are still some areas where the state could improve. For example, the gender gap in education and employment is still challenging.

In a comparative assessment across the country, Tamil Nadu fares well regarding human development. It is ranked second only to Kerala in the HDI. However, there are some states that are catching up, such as Punjab and Haryana.

Overall, Tamil Nadu is a state with a high level of human development. The state has made significant progress in recent years, and it will likely continue to improve in the future.

Here is a table comparing the HDI of Tamil Nadu with other Indian states:

StateHDI (2020)
Tamil Nadu0.709
Andhra Pradesh0.678
West Bengal0.671
Uttar Pradesh0.632

Alpha numeric Reasoning Tnpsc

Alphanumeric reasoning is a type of logical reasoning that involves a combination of letters and numbers. Alphanumeric series are a common type of question in competitive exams, such as bank exams and government exams.

To solve alphanumeric series questions, you need to be able to identify the pattern that is being followed. The pattern can be based on the letters, the numbers, or a combination of both. Once you have identified the pattern, you can use it to predict the next term in the series.

Here are some examples of alphanumeric series:

  • Letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I
  • Numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
  • Combination: A1, B2, C3, D4, E5, F6, G7, H8, I9

Here are some tips for solving alphanumeric series questions:

  • Start by identifying the pattern: The first step is to identify the pattern that is being followed. This can be done by looking at the first few terms in the series.
  • Look for a common sequence: Once you have identified the pattern, look for a common sequence that is being followed. This could be a simple sequence, such as adding 1 to each term, or a more complex sequence, such as adding 1 to the first letter and subtracting 1 from the second letter.
  • Predict the next term: Once you have identified the pattern, you can use it to predict the next term in the series.
  • Check your answer: Once you have predicted the next term, check your answer by looking at the next term in the series.

Here are some practice questions for alphanumeric reasoning:

  • 1. What is the next term in the series?
    • A1, B2, C3, D4, E5
  • 2. What is the next term in the series?
    • 1, 4, 9, 16, 25
  • 3. What is the next term in the series?
    • A@, B#, C$, D%, E^