Distribution of alluvial soil in India
Alluvial soil is distributed widely in the Northern Plains of India, also in eastern coastal plains in India such as the Mahanadi delta, Godavari delta, Krishna delta and Kaveri delta.
In Northern Plains, it is found throughout the Indo-Gangetic plain and especially along with the lower courses of India’s major rivers such as their deltas.
Areas of Distribution
It is the highest with about 43%. The region which is rich in Alluvial soil is the Great Northern Plains such as the Plains of river Ganga. This is because of the Himalayas, the rivers from where it is originated.
The Ganga carries, transports the soils and fine sediments, by its flowing water and deposits the silt, fine sediment of soil and rocks along their banks.
By a narrow corridor in Rajasthan, they extend into the Gujarat plains.
In the peninsular regions, these are distributed along the eastern coast and river valley.
In the Upper and Middle Ganga plain, two varieties of Alluvial soils developed and they are Khadar and Bhangar. The Khadar is new alluvium, which is deposited annually and consists of fine silts soil.
Bhangar is older alluvium, and it is deposited away from the flood plains. Both these Khadar and Bhangar have calcareous concretions (Kankars). These soils are distributed along the lower and middle Ganga plains and Brahmaputra valley.
The Alluvial soil distribution in India, states are Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal.
In the Peninsula, the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers.
The Alluvium is very fertile has a good proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat, and other cereals and pulses.