Art and Architecture of Bahmani kingdom Upsc

Bahmani Kingdom Architecture

Bahmani sultans developed an architecture called Persianate-Indo-Islamic. It was well adapted by the Sultanates of the Deccan.

Kalaburagi, the first capital of Bahmani is the place where Jami Masjid was built in 1367. It has perhaps the Bazaar Street in the fort, it is one of the earliest of its kind in India.

The royal necropolis is called Seven Tombs or Haft Gumbad. The oldest tomb here is the tomb of ruler Mujahid Shah, the third Bahmani ruler.

Also, Mujahid’s successor Dawood Shah invented a new style of tomb, that comprises two domed structures on a single basement. This double-chambered style tomb was copied by Firoz Shah Bahmani, for his tomb which is much lighter on the eyes.

The main architectural figures of the Bahmani are Mahmud Gawan Madrasa, Fort of Bidar, Jama Masjid and Gulbarga fort.

Mahmud Gawan Madrasa
Mahmud Gawan Madrasa

Bahmani rulers were buried in tombs known as Bahmani Tombs. These tombs were designed with coloured tiles, with Quranic verses in Persian over them.

The mosques and tombs in Bidar and Gulbarga are architecturally very pleasant. Bahmani rulers build a number of forts such as Daulatabad Fort, Golconda Fort, and Raichur fort.

Bahmani architecture is influenced by the Persian style as the builder were from middle east countries. Chand Minar, Jama Masjid, and Mahmud Gawan Madrasa were great architectural figures.

Gol Gumbza is one of the great works of Bahmani. The dome, eight arcs, and the acoustic inside as just marvels.

The black basalt doors, arches with stucco floral work, and chajjas borne on brackets, etc have become common features in the later architecture.

Gol Gumbaz- Bahmani Architecture

Bidar Fort

It is one of the most formidable forts in India. It is constructed by Ahmad Shah Bahamani between 1426 and 1432 Ad and is the site of Purana Qila. This site is situated in the eastern part of town, where there are palaces, mosques, etc built using trap-rocks.

The fort walls were built using stone and mortars. This fort has seven gates. On this site, the notable palaces are the Rangin Mahal, Chini Mahal, Turkash Mahal, etc.

Also, Solah Khambh Mosque is famous. This site also marks Lal Bagh or Ruby Garden.

Takhat Mahal

It is also called Throne palace, it has two side pavilions with lofty arches. Takhat Mahal is a spacious hall. The structure has stately dimensions and exquisite surface decorations.

It is important to note several Bahmani and Barid Shahi Sultans were held here.

Tarkash Mahal

It is built for the Turkish wife of the sultan. Then Mahal was built or extended by Barid Shahi Sultans. This is the place where the Barid Shahi sultans kept large harems of ladies from various countries.

Rangeen Mahal

It means coloured palace. Rangeen Mahals were decorated with tiles of different colours.

Shahi Matbakh

Shahi Matbakh adjoins the Rangeen Mahal and it is the residence of some price or higher official. The Shahi Hamam (Royal Bath) is near the royal kitchen (Shahi Matbakh), which is close to the Lal Bagh (Red Garden).

In Lal Bagh, red flowers are grown.

Gagan Mahal

It is also called Heavenly Palace. It was originally built by Bahmani Sultans. Later some alterations were made by the Baridi Shahi kings. Originally it has two courts, the outer courts were utilized by staff and guards.

And the Inner courts were used for the accommodation of guards. The purpose of the building was for the use of the Sultan and his harem.

Diwan-I- Am

It is a Public Audience Hall. Its structure is also called the Jali Mahal. This structure has two entrances. It is a spacious hall adorned with tile works probably meant for ministers and other officers.

The hall is fully decorated with coloured tiles.

Solah Khambh Mosque

It was built in 1423-1424 AD by Qubli Sultani. This mosque has 16 pillars in the front. This mosque is also known as Zanana Masjid. The structure is about 90 meters long and 24 meters wide.

The interiors are built beautifully, with large spaces to get fresh air and natural light. The structure has massive columns, arches, and domes. It is one of the largest mosques in India.


Chaubara literally means building facing in four directions. Its structure is a cylindrical tower of a height of 22 meters. It is situated in the middle of Bidar town and used watch towers to monitor the entire plateau.


This article is written for the Upsc exam for the topic “Art and Architecture of Bahmani Kingdom“. The historical monuments constructed during the Bahmani period are an intermixture of Hindu, Persian, and Turkish craftsmanship.

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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