According to article 340 of the Indian Constitution, the President of India can appoint backward classes commission to identify socially and educationally backward groups and also submit recommendations related to their standards and states. constituted the backward classes commission.
Kaka Kalelkar Commission
The first backward class commission is Kaka Kalelkar Commission.
Kaka Kalelkar Commission was the first one constituted on 29/01/1953. There were 11 members including Chairman Jawaharlal Nehru who tabled the report submitted by this commission in the Parliament.
The aim of the Kaka Kalelkar Commission is to determine the criteria in considering whether there is any section of people in the Indian Territory in addition to SC and ST, as socially and educationally backward classes.
Note: Socially and Educationally Backward Classes, It is no socially or Educationally backward classes.
This section of people must be both Socially and Educationally Backward Classes. Using such criteria, the commission needs to prepare a list of such classes and their territorial distribution.
The second backward class commission is Mandal Commission.
Central Government under the Prime Minister-ship of Morarji Desai constituted Subindeswari Prasad Mandal Commission on 20.12.1978. This is the second such Commission established for the backward community.
S.S.Gill was appointed as the Secretary of this Commission. It is in order to identify the condition of the backward community; a group was constituted under the leadership of B.B.Mandal in 1978. The group traveled all over the nation.
This Commission on the basis of 11 basic reasons identified 3743 castes that come under backward communities. Castes were identified on the ground of peoples’ status in education and society.
Mandal has written in the preface of the report which reads, “Madras is a pioneer state in communal representation. It has given representation for backward classes”.
We may infer that Tamilnadu is the birthplace for Social Justice and serve as a great pioneer for all other states. 52% of the backward communities in India has to be provided with 27% reservation, remarked Mandal Report.
This reservation was implemented by V.P.Singh Government on 13.08.1990 in all Government (Central) Services. Due to this order, backward communities who are backward in social and educational sectors entered into central services.