A child is a person who has completed the age of 18, Minor as per UNO. Child rights are mentioned in Articles 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human rights.
Child rights are accepted and adopted in the UN General Assembly on 20th November 1989. Child rights are rights to Life, family environment, education, social security, against sexual exploitation and against sale or trafficking, against exploitation like child labor.
Right to Life
The child has the right to life before its birth. The right to survival also has the right to be born, the right to basic needs such as food, shelter, and clothing, and dignified living.
Right to Family Environment
Every child has the right to live a normal childhood in a family environment. Children with no family, abandoned, or destitute also have the right to live. These children can be given for adoption.
Right to Benefit from Social Security
Children should get financial support from the state or country, when their parents or guardian is not in a state to provide them with a good standard of living, due to illness, disability, or old age.
Right to Education
The right to education is an act of parliament of India enacted in 2009 for free and compulsory education for children from 6 to 14 years.
This act is based on Article 21A of the constitution. This act provides every child with compulsory elementary education. The child need not pay fees for elementary education.
Right against sale or trafficking
Children are vulnerable to sale or trafficking for various activities such as Child labour, Sex slaves, prostitution, drug trafficking, etc.
This right provides children with fundamental human rights against sale or trafficking.
Right against sexual exploitation
The government should protect children from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse, physically or mentally.
POSCO Act- Protection of Children From Sexual Offences Act
POSCO Act, 2012, is one of the most important acts as far as Child interest is concerned.
Feature of POSCO Act,2012
- This act ensures anyone below the age of 18 to ensure health in the physical, emotional, intellectual, and social development of a child.
- The statement is recorded as it is like the child narrates when the abuse is committed by the family member or the acquaintances.
- “A child not to be called repeatedly to testify.”
- The death penalty for rapist of girls under the age of 12 and stringent penal provisions for rape is added in April 2018.
- The Criminal Law Amendment Ordinance, 2018 amended the Indian Penal code.
- The fine imposed is used for the treatment and rehabilitation of the child victim.