Causes of Human Migration Upsc

Causes of Migration

We can divide factors causing migrations into two groups of factors as push and pull factors.

Push and Pull factors

Push and pull factors are those factors that either forcefully push people into migration or attract them. A push factor is forceful, and a factor that relates to the country from which a person migrates.

A pull factor is something concerning the country to which a person migrates. It is generally a benefit that attracts people to a certain place. Push and Pull factors are usually considered as north and south poles on a magnet.

Push Factors:

Not enough jobs, few opportunities, desertification, famine/drought, political fear/ persecution, poor medical care, loss of wealth, natural disasters, death threats, slavery, pollutions, poor housing, landlords, bullying, and poor chances of finding courtship

Pull Factors:

Job opportunities, better living conditions, political and or religious freedom, enjoyment, education, better medical care, security, family links, industry, better chances of finding courtship.


Overpopulation is the state whereby the human population rises to an extent exceeding the carrying capacity of the ecological setting. In an overpopulated environment, the number of people might be more than the available essential materials for survival such as transport, water, shelter, food, or social amenities.

This regularly contributes to environmental deterioration, worsening in the quality of life, or even the disintegration of the population. Due to immigration, the decline in mortality rates, medical breakthroughs, and increased birth rates, populations will always increase and eventually gives rise to overpopulation.

0 0 votes
Article Rating
Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
Would love your thoughts, please comment.x