Climate change and its Consequences Tnpsc

climate change and its consequences

Climate change Definition

Climate change in IPCC usage refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer.

Climate change definition by Ipcc

Climate change refers to seasonal changes over a long period with respect to the growing accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Recent studies have shown that human activities since the beginning of the industrial revolution have contributed to an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by as much as 40%, from about 280 parts per million in the pre-industrial period, to 402 parts per million in 2016, which in turn has led to global warming.

Several parts of the world have already experienced the warming of coastal waters, high temperatures, a marked change in rainfall patterns, and increased intensity and frequency of storms. Sea levels and temperatures are expected to be rising.

Climate change and its consequences

Climate change and its consequences are nothing but the negative effects of climate changes, It includes the Failure of the Monsoons. In-country like India, where the majority of the population depend on the Monsoon rainfall for drinking and agriculture.

As most of the rivers in India are non-perennial, People always expects of Monsoon as a source of water. If one season is failed it will be a huge disaster in India. It results in the drying of rivers, lakes and putting a lot of pressure on the groundwater resources.

This in turn puts a lot of pressure on the groundwater. This results in excessive usage of groundwater for agriculture and drinking water that results in groundwater depletion.

Some crops which are planted in Tamil Nadu such as Paddy requires a lot of water to grow. When the monsoon fails it is difficult to depend on groundwater. When the groundwater depletes it results in crop failure.

The crop failure results in famine and diseases.

Another Climate change and its Consequences is an increase in the level of the sea. When the sea level increase just by one inch several Islands and low-lying cities such Chennai, or other coastal regions may submerge into the sea.

As we get news regarding rising sea level is submerging several Pacific Islands If cannot stop the climate change most part of Tamil Nadu might submerge into the sea.

Climate change and its Consequences on Biodiversity

The effects of climate change on Biodiversity is another important topic we need to address. The increase in atmospheric temperature increases the temperature of the sea. This affects the growth of Coral reefs and the breeding of fishes.

The coral reef needs water of temperature 23°–29°Celsius for its growth. When the temperature of seawater increases, it directly affects the growth of Coral. Thousand of species depend directly on the Coral reefs.

The increase in seawater temperature directly affects sea species.

It also affects several birds and animals. An increase in temperature affects Polar Ice Caps that affect Polar Bear, Penguin, etc. The Polar bear population is decreasing at a rapid rate.

The increase in temperature results in frequent forest fires, that kills a lot of wild animals and plants.

Climate change mitigation

Climate change mitigation is a set of activities that need to be taken to reduce the impact of climate change. These include using renewable energy sources such as Solar power plants, wind energy, etc.

Reducing the Co2 discharge, using public transport rather than using Individual vehicles such as Motor Bike, cars, etc.

The latest improvement in climate mitigation is the increased usage of E-Vehicles and Bio Fuels. These are some of the climate change solutions.

The latest climate change news is Treats to tropical forests, Melting glaciers, Global food shortage.

Climate change causes

  • Global warming is the current increase in temperature of the Earth’s surface (both land and water) as well as its atmosphere.

  • Average temperatures around the world have risen by 0.75ºC (1.4ºF) over the last 100 years.

  • About two-thirds of this increase has occurred since 1975.

  • Carbon dioxide, methane, Chlorofluoro Carbon, nitrous oxides are the greenhouse gases warming the earth’s surface. So it is also called the greenhouse effect.

  • The CO2 is the most important of the greenhouse gases contributing to 50% of global warming.

  • The burning of fossil fuel, and other biomass, deforestation result in CO2.

  • In the past, when the Earth experienced increases in temperature it was the result of natural causes but today it is being caused by human activities.


Climate change and Global warming adversely affect agriculture, horticulture, and the ecosystem. Reduced rainfall, higher temperature, and increased pest/weed growth hamper farming.

Threats to health arise due to an increase in disease-carrying vectors such as mosquitoes resulting in malaria, dengue fever, encephalitis, and yellow fever.

An increase in the global average surface air temperature of such magnitude will bring about alarming changes in rainfall patterns and other climatic conditions, resulting in serious ecological disequilibrium.

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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