Freedom fighters and national leaders of India
During the time of World War II, armed revolutionary activities continued. The role of Subhas Chandra Bose is incomparable.
On July 2, 1943, Netaji reached Singapore and gave the rousing war cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’. He was made the President of the Indian Independence League and soon became the supreme commander of the Indian National Army.
He gave the country the slogan “Jai Hind”. The name of the INA three Brigade was the Subhas Brigade, Gandhi Brigade, and Nehru Brigade.
The women’s wing was named after Rani Laxmi Bai. INA marched towards Imphal after registering its victory over Kohima.
After Japan surrendered in 1945, INA failed in its efforts. Then Netaji to Taiwan, on his way to Tokyo he died in the plane crash on 18-Aug-1945.
The trial of the soldiers of INA was held at Red Fort in Delhi. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai, and Tej Bahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of the soldiers.
Moulana Abulkalam Azad
Moulana Abulkalam Azad, along with M.A. Ansari, Saifuddin Kitchlew, and the Ali brothers were prominent leaders behind the Khilafat Movement.
Moulana Abulkalam Azad along with Nehru was imprisoned in Ahmednagar Fort, as a precautionary measure by the government when the All India Congress party passed Quit India Resolution and Gandhi gave his call of ‘do or die’.
Moulana Abulkalam Azad as the congress president rejected the idea of composition in geographical terms as the region comprising the Muslim majority provinces of Bengal and Assam in the Northeast and the Punjab, Sind, and Baluchistan in teh North West.
Motilal Nehru along with Chittranjan Das formed a separate group within the congress known as Swarat Party on 1 January 1923.
The Swaraj Party gained impressive successes, in the central Legislative council Motilal Nehru became the leader of the party.
Motilal Nehru also prepared a blueprint for the future constitution of India. The report published by the committee headed by Motilal Nehru was called as Nehru Report (1928).
Jawaharlal Nehru who presided annual session of congress in Lahore in December 1929 passed the Poorna Swaraj resolution.
Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months for Individual Satyagraha against the August offer.
Jawaharlal Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad, and other leaders were imprisoned in the Ahmednagar Fort as a precautionary measure after passing the Quit India Resolution.
As a part of the Cabinet’s mission plan (1946), An interim Government was formed under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru on 2 September 1946.
Rabindranath Tagore was one of the central figures who popularised ideas through his writings. He outlined the constructive programme of atmashakti (self-help).
Tagore called for economic self-development and insisted that education should be provided in swadeshi languages.
He also made the call for utilizing melas, or fairs to spread the message of atmashakti.
This became the creed of the whole of Bengal and swadeshi ships sprang all over the place selling textiles, handlooms, soaps, earthenware, matches, and leather goods.
He renounced his title knighthood immediately after the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre.
By 1930, Dr. Ambedkar has become national leader stature championing the cause of depressed people. In the first round table conference, Ambedkar demanded separate electorates for depressed people.
On 16 August 1932, British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement regarding Communal Award.
As per communal award, depressed classes were considered as a separate community, and provisions were made for separate electorates for them.
Mahatma Gandhi protested against the Communal Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932. Finally, an agreement was reached between Dr.Ambedkar and Gandhi, this agreement is called the Poona Pact.
Accordingly, 148 seats in different Provincial Legislatures were reserved for the Depressed Classed in place of 71 as provided in the communal award.
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was appointed as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee, the constitution of India was finally adopted on 26 November 1949. The Constitution came into effect on 26 January 1950.
Ambedkar dedicated his entire life to the welfare of the downtrodden. In Bombay, he formed a Bahiskrit Hitkarini Sabha(Association for the welfare of excluded) in July 1924.
He also organized the Akhil Bharatiya Dali, Varg Sabha to fight against caste oppression and started a journal called Mook Nayak (leader of the dumb).
He launched the Mahad Satyagraha to establish the civic right of the untouchables to public tanks and wells and started the Independent Labour party in 1937 and the second Scheduled Caste Federation in 1942.
The colonial government made him a member of the Defence Advisory Committee in 1942 and a minister in the Viceroys cabinet.
The Karachi session held in March 1931, presided over by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, adopted a resolution on Fundamental Rights and Duties and provided an insight into the economic policy of an independent India.
Sardar Vallabhai Patel in Bombay took the initiative to bring the Royal Indian Navy Revolt to an end.
the viceroy issued invitations on 15 June 1946 to the 14 men to join the interim government, Patel was one invited.
Govind Ballabh Pant, accepting partition (Mountbatten plan), was approved. It required the persuasive powers of Nehru and Patel as well as the moral authority of Gandhi to get the majority in the AICC in favor of the resolution.
The task of integrating the Princely States into the Indian Union was achieved with such speed that by August 15, 1947, except Kashmir, Junagadh, and Hyderabad.
The rapid unification of India was ably handled and achieved by Sardar Vallabhai Patel, who was Home Minister in the Interim Cabinet.