Natural resources of India
Natural resources of India include coal, where India has the fourth largest coal reserve in the world, also several other important mineral reserves such as Iron ore, manganese ore (7th largest reserve), bauxite (5th largest), thorium etc.
The most important natural resources are Oil, coal, natural gas, metals, stone and sand. Of this India has abundant natural resources.
Metallic are of two types: Ferrous and Non-Ferrous. Ferrous minerals have iron content such as iron, manganese, nickel, cobalt, tungsten, etc.
Non-Ferrous Minerals- do not have iron content such as gold, silver, copper, bauxite, etc.
Nonmetallic minerals do not contain metals, such as mica, limestone, gypsum, potash, and coal. Non-metallic minerals are also called mineral fuels, such as coal and petroleum.
Distribution of natural resources in India
It is estimated that about 100 different minerals are known to be produced in India, out of the 30 are important.
Most of the metallic minerals are found in the peninsular plateau regions, especially in old crystalline rocks. Mineral distribution is concentrated in three belts. Maybe some occurrence here and there is in isolated pockets.
The three belts are the northeastern plateau, southwestern plateau, and northwestern region.
Iron is not found in pure form, it is often mixed with lime, magnesium, phosphorous, silicon, etc. There are four types of iron ore Haematite, Magnetite, Limonite, and Siderite.
Haematite is reddish in colour, also known as red ochre. It contains 60-70% of iron.
The ore colour is dark brown to blackish and is called black ore. It has magnetic properties. It contains 70% of iron.
It is an inferior variety of iron ore and has many impurities and is also called iron carbonate. It contains 20 to 40% of iron.
It is yellow or light brown in colour, it is called hydrated iron oxide when the iron ore is mixed with oxygen and water. Its mining is cheaper and easier. It contains 40 to 60% of iron.
Iron ore reserves
India has 20% of the world’s total iron reserves. About 75% of the total reserves of iron ore in India are of haematite grade.
Jharkhand, Orissa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, and Goa, have 97% of the total iron ore reserves of India.
It is a silver-grey element and it is very hard and brittle. Manganese is always available as a combination with iron, laterite, and other minerals.
It is widely used in iron and steel manufacturing. Also used for making various alloys. Used in making of batteries, bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, etc.
Manganese ore reserves
Found in Odisha (44%), Karnataka (22%), Madhya Pradesh (12%), Maharashtra(7%), Goa (7%), Andra Pradesh (4%), Jharkhand (2%).
Also found in Rajasthan Gujarat, Telangana, and West Bengal. The leading producers of Manganese Ore are the Nagpur, Bhandara, Ratnagiri districts of Maharastra.
Balaghat, Chhindwara districts.
Sundargarh, Kalahandi, Koraput, and Bolangir districts are the major ones.
Other producers are:
Andhra Pradesh (13%)
Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Cuddapah, and Guntur districts.
Districts of Shimoga, Bellary, Chitradurga, and Tumkur.
Copper is an important metal that is used by prehistoric men. Bronze is an alloy of Copper, Zinc, and tin. Copper is used for making Electrical wires, Cooking utensils, etc.
Copper Ore Reserves
Rajasthan state has the largest copper reserve in the country that provides 53.81% of the total produce. It is followed by Jharkhand with 19.54% and Madhya Pradesh with 18.75%.
Other producers are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal. Together these states account for 7.9%.
Khetri, Alwar, and Bhilwara districts.
Dehradun and Garhwal Districts
Guntur, Kurnool, and Nellore districts
Chitradurga and Hassan districts.
Bauxite is an important ore of Aluminium. This ore is found in rocks consisting mainly of hydrated aluminium. It is distributed in the areas of laterite soil.
Aluminium is lightweight and is used in the manufacturing of aircraft, automobile engines, manufacture of cement, various chemicals, etc.
Bauxite deposits are mainly found in Odisha (50.2%), Gujarat(15.8%), Jharkhand(11.9%), Maharashtra(9.9%), Chhattisgarh (6.2%) and Tamil Nadu (2.7%).
The Non-Metallic Minerals include Mica, limestone, gypsum, nitrate, potash, dolomite, coal, petroleum, etc
Mica is used in the electrical industry, as insulating material as it withstands high voltage and has a low power loss factor. Abhrak is a top-quality mica. Mica is translucent. It can be easily split into thin sheets.
It is also used in making lubricants, medicines, paints, and varnishes.
Mica Ore Reserves
Mica deposits are found in Andhra Pradesh(41%), Rajasthan(21%), and Odisha (20%).
Nellore, Visakhapatnam, West Godavari, and Krishna
Bhilwara, Jaipur, and Ajmer districts
Rayagada, Bolangir, and Sundargarh districts
Palamu, Ranchi, and Singhbum districts.
These are rocks that are composed of calcium carbonate or the double carbonate of calcium and magnesium or both. The limestones also contain little silica, alumina, iron oxides, phosphorous, and sulphur.
These are used in making soda ash, caustic soda, bleaching powder, cement, steel plants, glass, fertilizers, and paper.
Limestone Ore Reserves
Andra Pradesh and Telangana produce the most limestone ores with 20% each. Rajasthan (20%), Madhya Pradesh (12%), Tamil Nadu (8.4%), and Karnataka has the most limestone reserves (27%), followed by Andra Pradesh and Rajasthan (12% each), Gujarat (10%), Meghalaya (9%), Telangana (8%), Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh (5% each) and the remaining by other states.
Cuddapah, Kurnool, and Guntur districts
Nalgonda, Adilabad, Warangal and Karimnagar
Jodhpur, Ajmer, Bikhaner and Kota
Jabalpur and Satna Districts
Salem, Kancheepuram, Tiruchirappalli, Thoothukkudi, Tirunelveli, and Virudhunagar districts.
Gypsum is hydrated sulphate of calcium. It is white, and opaque. These are found in the beds of sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone, and shale.
It is used in the manufacture of cement, fertilizers, plaster of Paris, etc. It is also used in conditioning soil.
Gypsum Ore Reserve
Rajasthan state accounts for 81% of the total reserve in the country. Also, there is a 14% reserve in Jammu and Kashmir and a 2% Reserve in Tamil Nadu.
Also, 3% of resources were present in the states of Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.
Rajasthan produces 82% of the country, Jammu and Kashmir produce 14%, and other states such as Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu produces 4% each.
Jodhpur, Bikaner and Jaisalmer
Jammu and Kashmir
Baramula, Doda and Uri
Bhavnagar and Jamnagar
Dehradun and Mussourrie
Nellore, Guntur, and Prakasam District