Blue water policy Upsc

Bluewater policy of Portuguese

Its basic idea is to make Portugal a powerful country in the maritime region under this strategy. In India, it is the fortification of the Indian Ocean for establishing Portuguese business in the Indian Ocean.

The aim of the blue water policy of the viceroy of Possession in India, Francisco de Almeida was to maintain the sea supremacy in the Indian waters and confine their activities to a purely commercial transaction

Portuguese in India

Bartholomew Diaz was the first navigator to cross the equator. Then Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India and reached it on May 17, 1498.

He was welcomed by Manuvikrama Varma, King of Zamorin of Calicut. Portuguese established settlements at Cochin, Cannanore, and Calicut in 1502 AD.

In 1502 AD, settlements were established by the Portuguese at Cochin, Cannanore, and Calicut. Cochin was a prime centre for trade up to 1530 AD.

After their death, Vasco da Gama was buried in Cochin.

Portuguese Governors

Fransisco de Almada

Fransisco de Almada is the first governor. He introduced the Bluewater policy.

Alphonso de Albuquerque

The second Portuguese Governor conquered Goa from the Bijapur Sultan in 1510 AD. He founded the concept of the Portuguese empire in India and encouraged conversions and forced marriages between local and Portuguese officers.

Nino de Cunha

He shifted the capital city from Cochin to Goa. St.Xavier, a popular Jesuit father visited India during the tenure of Alfanso De D’Souza.

Portuguese Settlements

On the West Coast, the Portuguese had settlements at Ormuz, Dabool, Cambay, Surat, Goa, Daman and Diu, Salsettle, Bassein, Kalyan. The East coast settlements were Santhome near Chennai and Hugli in Bengal.

On the Malabar Coast, it is cochin, Calicut, and Cannanore.

Portuguese Trade in India

The spice trade was the main. Portuguese were the first to start a licensing system and to follow monopolistic trade. The licensor was named Cartazes by the Portuguese.

The decline of Portuguese in India

The English Captain named Best defeated the Portuguese in the Battle of Swalley and by this, the Portuguese lost Surat. Ormuz lost the Dutch in 1622.

Hugli lost in 1631. Mumbai was given as a dowry in 1661 by the Portuguese to the English, for the marriage between Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza and Prince Charles II of England.

The Dutch won Cochin against the Portuguese in 1663. The Salsette and Bassein Islands were occupied by Peshwa Bajirao in 1739.

Because of the defeats against other European nations like English, Dutch, and Mumbai given as a dowry to English, the Portuguese were now only left with Goa, Daman, and Diu till 1961 AD.


  • Who implemented the blue water policy?

Francisco de Almedica introduced the Bluewater policy or Cartaza System. The idea behind this system was to make Portugues a powerful maritime nation.

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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