C. Rajagopalachari alias Rajaji led the first elected ministry in Madras Presidency, under Republican Constitution. He introduced a total prohibition on liquor.
Rajaji abolished the Zamindari system. Introduced legislation removing the restriction on temple entry for the depressed classes.
He closed a large number of schools. But he tried to impose Hindi in Schools and also introduced the modified scheme of elementary education that provided part-time learning of hereditary occupation called Kulakalvi.
Tamil Nationalists like Mariamalai Adigal organized the ‘Anti Hindi Movement’ in 1937. Thousands of agitators including E.V.Ramaswamy arrested, and a number of agitators died in prison.
Dravidian leaders launched a statewide protest. Even a section of Congress was against Rajaji because of the Kulakalvi scheme. This led to a change in Chief Ministership.
He was senior leader of Congress, writer and a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi. Also a member of Constituent Assembly. He was first Indian to be the Governor Gerneral of India (1948-1950). He was minister in Union Cabiner. Also he was Chief Minister of Madras State.
He was first recipient of Bharat Ratna Award.C.Rajagopalachari (1878-1972)
The Growth of Gandhi Influence is Phenomenon from 1917 to 1922, this growth is commonly referred to as “Gandhian nationalism“. A group of very talented individuals attached themselves with Gandhiji, C. Rajagopalachri is one amount them. Other are Mahadev Desai, Vallabhai Patel, J.B. Kripalani, Subhas Chandra Bose, Abul Kalam Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, and Govind Ballabh Pant.
As the Non-Cooperation movement gained momentum during 1921-22, several thousand students left the government-controlled schools and colleges. Also, many lawyers gave up their practices. One Such lawyer who gave up practicing Lawyer is C.Rajagopalachari. Other famous lawyers are C.R.Das, Motilal Nehru, and Asaf Ali.
Rajagopalachari proposed a plan to resolve the political deadlock between the Indian National Congress and India Muslim League on Independent India. It is also called C.R.Formula.
Swatantra Party was formed in August 1959 after the Nagpur resolution of Congress. The Nagpur resolution of Congress called for the land ceilings, the take over of food grains by the state, and also the adoption of cooperative farming. This party was led by C.Rajagopalachari, K.M.Munshi, N.G.Ranga and Minoo Masani.
This party differed from other political parties in terms of policies for economic issues.
Critisim of Rajaji led Swatantra Party
This party wants the government to be less involved in controlling the economy. It belied in individual freedom. It favored the expansion of the free private sector and was against the land ceiling in agriculture. Also opposed cooperative farming and state trading.
Swatantra party also opposed the progressive tax regime and demanded the dismantling of the licensing regime. This party advocated the need for India to have friendly relations with the Soviet Union and to maintain closer ties with United States.
The Swatantra Party has grown in different parties across India and has alliances with different regional parties across India. During which the party has attracted the landlords and princesses who wanted to protect their lands which were threatened by the land reforms legislation.
The elite class such as industrialists or business class, who were against nationalization and licensing policies supported the party. Rajaji’s, Swatantra party failed to get long-term success due to narrow social-based and lack of dedicated cadre of party members.
Helped DMK to Form First Government
In 1967, DMK came to power in Madras Province and DMK is the single non-Congress party that achieved party majority.
The defeat of a strong Congress by DMK was achieved by DMK, and the non-congress party formed an electoral fusion along with Rajaji’s Swatantra Party.
Rajaji played an important role in the formation of the Electoral alliance against the Mighty Congress.
His efforts played a vital role in bringing DMK into power for the first time.
Mootharignar Rajaji (Rajaji, the Scholar Emeritus), was an Indian statesman, writer, lawyer, and Indian independence activist. He lost his place in politics due to some controversial decisions and the rise of the DMK party.