Salient Features of Indian Society

India is a plural society, that its unity and diversity. It is grand mixtures of cultures, language, religions, caste, and communities and upheld by unity.

Several foreign invasions such as Mughal, British, etc, the national unity is maintained in spite.

India Society is also called Mosaic on Culture.

The cultural uniqueness gave the Indian Society to revolt against the British emperor.

Indian Society has good cultural tolerance due to the existence of various cultures, religions, and languages.

From the 19th century, there is an emergence of new factors to the existing cultural diversity.

This happened due to the common legal system, administration, and education system throughout the country by the Indian Penal Code.

The impact of westernization has led to the introduction of modern communication such as posts, telegraphs and modern transport systems such as Railways.

The introduction of English played an important role in Indian Society.

India has its own religious and ethnic history which dates to more than 5000 years ago, starting from Indus Valley Civilization.

During these periods various immigrants, linguistic and religions had mingled with the native people and contributed to the rich, diversified Indian Society.

Aryans, a pastoral community came via Khyber channel, after the Indus valley civilization are well versed in Poetry, Philosophical and rituals.

Aryans considered themselves superiors, and practiced Endogamy (Marrying within their own people or community) and practiced elaborate rituals for community purity and pollution.

Aryans introduced the Varna (Color/ Complexion) and Jati (Caste) System.

The Indo-Aryans have broken into three groups namely Warriors and aristocrats called Rajanya, Religious Priests called the Brahmin and Cultivator or Farmer called Vaisyas and they called non-Indo Aryans as Sudras.

Apart from the Four varna system, the fifth group of people whose status was very low in this society propagated by Aryans called the Panchama or Avarna (Scheduled Caste).

The present-day Indian Society and Indian Culture is a result of cultural contact, conflict, and integration.

The influence of the west gives another dimension to Indian society and sociocultural dynamics.

Indian society is basically a traditional system, its modernity arrived from the west from Technology to Culture.

Moreover, there have been a lot of Western countries that ruled the Indian Society such a Dutch, French, etc but the Influence of British influence is strong in India.

As already said, the Indian society is highly traditional where as Western culture was modern in terms of rational thinking, individualism( Habit of being independent and self-reliant) and utilitarianism (Culture that promotes happiness and rejects unhappiness or harm).

Also, western culture promotes Egalitarianism ( All people are equal irrespective of color, language, and religion) and universalism.

With the arrival of the British, new thinking or society is formed.

The western system impacted the administration as well.

British introduced English in education and also secular education.

Before the British, administration and official language in the India Sub continent were Sanskrit, Persian, and Urdu.

British changed the official language to English.

The English has become a window to the outside world and exposed Indians towards the system of egalitarianism, rationalism, and secularism.

The modern transport and communication increase mobility in the country.

The printing, postal and radio spread new ideas and dimensions of the country.

These new ideas awakened the people from traditional evils, there is a lot of social changes that happened to the Indian Society.

The Introduction of India Penal Code, there happen to change in the legal and justice system, equal before the law was felt throughout the country.

The industrialization and urbanization are the important factors of change.

The industrialization  brought were the new determinants of social status in Indian society.

A new feel called Nationalism arrived with united the whole Indian Society.

It is a very crucial thing happened due to Westernization, it resulted in the new Westernized Elite in place traditional Elite.

The new Westernized Elite brought new ideas and value, it also proposed the new way of Hinduism and the caste system, which was much more Humane and of social order.

Indian Society did not change to a western culture entirely but surprisingly it adapted and retained its core tradition and values with Western Culture.

Characteristics of Indian Culture and Society

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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