Types of soil in Uttar Pradesh
The soil in Uttar Pradesh is mostly old. Except for the traces found in rivers valleys. Uttar Pradesh soil is covered by a deep layer of alluvium due to the slow-moving Ganges river and its tributaries. These alluvial soils are fertile that range from sandy to clayey loam.
Soils in Uttar Pradesh are mainly classified into three:
- Soils of Bhabar and Terai Region
- Soils of Genetic Plain
- Soils of Southern Plateau
Soils of Bhabar and Terai Region
Bhabar Region Soil
Bhabar runs along the Shiwalik foothills and is about 8-16 wide. The rivers that come from the Himalayas deposit their load along the foothills in the form of alluvial fans. This bhabar tract consists of gravel and un-assorted sediment deposits.
This region is not suitable for cultivation. The bhabar soil is very shallow and porous or permeable in nature. As a result, this is only good for the growth of a big tree that has large roots.
Terai Region Soil
The Terai is a lowland region that lies in northern and southern Nepal, lies south outer foothills of the Himalayas, Sivalik Hills and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This lowland has characteristics of having tall grasslands, scrub savannah, sal forest and clay rick swamps.
This region runs parallel to the south of Bhabar and it is made of new alluvium. It is about 15 to 30 km wide. In this region, the underground streams of the Bhabar region re-emerge in this belt. This makes the region swampy lowland with silty soils.
The soil here is sand and clay, this soil is suitable for the cultivation of wheat, rice, sugarcane, jute etc.
Gangetic Plain Soil
The soils of the Gangetic plain are formed as a result of sedimentary deposition by rivers. As a result Alluvial soils are found in the Gangetic plain.
Alluvial soil consists of locally transported detritus materials of soil and parent materials of slopping terrains from its upper sections, erosions and landslides. Alluvial soil has fine particles of sand and Kankar (grave).
Its physical and chemical composition makes it the most fertile soil in the world. The alluvial soil in this region is divided into two: Khadar and Bangar Soil
Khadar is composed of new alluvium and forms the flood plains along the banks of the river. These are clayey and loamy, leached and dry. Also, Khadar soil is less calcareous and carbonaceous. Khadar soil forms again and again as the river banks are flooded every year and a new layer of alluvium is deposited every year with every flood.
Khadar soil is found in Central Ranges, Western, and Eastern Gangetic regions.
Bangar regions are beyond the floodplains that lie more upland and consist of older alluvium. Bangar soil is higher in sandy loam content. The Bangar region is less prone to flooding. This soil is sandier and less fertile compared to Khadar.