Geography Upsc Mains


Physical Geography :

  1. Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic
    forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical
    conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics;
    Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel
    morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology;
    Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.


  2. Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth;
    Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds;
    Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types
    and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and
    Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change,
    and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.


  3. Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans;
    Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves,
    currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs
    coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.


  4. Biogeography : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil
    erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants
    and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry,
    agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

  5. Environmental Geography : Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence
    of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and
    imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation,
    management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental
    policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and

Human Geography :

  1. Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis;
    Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis;
    Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and
    secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development indix.

  2. Economic Geography : World economic development: measurement and problems; World
    resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture:
    typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions
    problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location
    patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.

  3. Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population;
    Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of
    over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and
    policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital.
    Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements;
    Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size
    rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe;
    Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

  4. Regional Planning : Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation;
    Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies;Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

  5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human geography;
    Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of
    Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location;
    Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and
    Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.



  1. Physical Setting : Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and
    relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian
    monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and
    droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.

  2. Resources : Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine
    resources, Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

  3. Agriculture : Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land
    holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity,
    agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green
    revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming;
    Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and
    poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.

  4. Industry : Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel,
    aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and
    ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings;
    Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special
    Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.

  5. Transport, Communication and Trade : Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline
    net works and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of
    ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy;Export processing zones;
    Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on
    economy and society; Indian space programme.

  6. Cultural Setting : Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic
    diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural
    regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes:
    sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration
    (inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; Population
    problems and policies; Health indicators.

  7. Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments;
    Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and
    metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town planning;
    Problems of urbanisation and remedies.

  8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year
    Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised
    planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional
    planning and development of island territories.

  9. Political Aspects : Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation;
    Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International
    boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs;
    Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

  10. Contemporary Issues : Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes,
    Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution;
    Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and
    environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental
    degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and
    industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable
    growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and
    Indian economy.

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