Endogenic and exogenic forces upsc

The endogenic and exogenic forces cause physical stresses and other chemical actions on the earth’s materials and bring changes to the surface of the earth. This is known as the Geomorphic process.

Endogenic and Exogenic forces

  • The forces which work over the surface of the earth are called Exogenic forces and the forces that work inside the surface of the earth or which act interior of the earth are called Endogenic forces.
  • The endogenic forces work is visible only after it causes sudden damage or severe damage. Still, on the other hand, exogenic forces create visible changes as these changes took hundreds or thousands of years.

The Endogenic processes are diastrophism and volcanism and the exogenic process is Weathering, mass wasting, erosion, oxidation, reduction, hydration and deposition. The exogenic process also depends on the climate, type and structure of the rocks.

Geomorphic agents are water, ice, wind etc. These agents remove materials and transport them over the slope and deposit them at a lower level.

Geomorphic Processes Weathering
Geomorphic Processes Weathering By Wing-Chi Poon (talk ยท contribs) – Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=391721

Gravity is the directional force that activates all the downslope movement and also causes stresses on the earth’s material. Indirect gravitational stresses activate wave and tide-induced currents and winds. Without the gradients and gravity, there will be no mobility and no erosion and deposition are possible.

All the movement inside or outside the surface of the earth happens due to gradients from the higher level to the lower level, and from high-pressure to low-pressure areas etc.

The five geomorphic processes of weathering are

The four types of physical weathering are due to water, ice, plant and animals. Similarly, chemical weathering is due to water dissolving minerals in the rock, producing a new compound.

For example: When water reacts with granite, the Feldspar crystal inside the granite reacts chemically forming clay minerals, which weakens the rock and makes it more vulnerable to Weathering.

Geomorphic Processes Weathering due to glacial transportation, glacial deposition and glacial erosion.


  1. What are exogenic and endogenic forces?

The forces that act in the interior of the earth are called Endogenic forces. The forces that work on the surface of the earth is called Exogenic forces.

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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