First Human Development Report was published in 1990.
First Person to develop this is Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq and Prof Amartya Sen with the leadership of Dr. Haq.
The title of the human development report in 2019 is ” Beyond income, beyond averages, beyond today: Inequalities in human development in the 21st century”.
HDR is brought out by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
World development report by World Bank. Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq describes, Human development as the process of enlarging people’s choices and improving their lives.
Human Development Index
- Longevity or Health
- Literacy or Education
- Standard of Living
Longevity or Health
The minimum value of 20 years to maximum years of 83.57 years. Maximum years of 83.7 is observed in 1980-2012.
Life expectancy birth is 55 means it would be 0.551 for the country.
Literacy or Education (HDR-2010)
Mean Years of Schooling- This is based on surveys available with the UNESCO Institute for Statistics database and Barro & Lee’s (2010) method.
Expected years of schooling (Minimum age the child enters the school) – Enrollment by age at all levels of education and population of the official school. The expected years of schooling is currency 18 years.
In 1980-2012m 13.3 years were estimated for the United States.
Standard of Living
It is measured by GNI (Gross National Income/ Product) per capita at ‘Purchasing Power Parity in US Dollars (PPP $). GDP is used in the past for Standard of Living.
The minimum income is $100 to a maximum of $87,478 (PPP). Qatar is maximum with $87,478 (PPP) in 2012.
UNDP ranks based on the performances on a scale from 0 to 1.
The scale of Classification HDI by UNDP
- 0.8 to 1.0 – High HDI countries.
- 0.5 to 0.79 medium HDI countries.
- 0.0 to 0.49 Low HDI countries
Approaches of human development
It is one of the earliest methods of determining Human development and it is linked to income. The higher the level of income and higher is the level of human development.
This method treats humans are target beneficiaries and it argues the government to spend money on education, health, amenities, etc. In this approach, people are just receivers of benefits and not participants.
Basin Needs Approach
This approach was proposed by International Labour Organisation (ILO) initially. Health, education, food, water supply, sanitation, and housing were identified as basic needs, and human choices are ignored.
This method of human development is associated with Prof. Amartya Sen. By building human capabilities such as Health, education, access to resources will help human development.
Pillars of Human Development
Human development has four pillars, they are equity, sustainability, productivity, and empowerment.
Equity refers to the process of giving equal opportunities to everyone in society irrespective of gender, race, etc. In the case of India, it is caste.
Sustainability is continuity in making the availability of opportunities for all generations. All the environmental, financial, and human resources must be used keeping in mind for future generations. Misuse of natural resources will make natural resources unavailable for future generations.
Productivity means human resources or human labor, it needs to be constantly enriched by giving education, increasing the health facilities, etc.