When a Human is unable to get nutritious food, shelter, and education, or if children are forced into Child Labour, or a Human or community faces social discrimination such as Caste discrimination, then they come under Human Poverty.
In Several countries, Women, Elderly or Old age people, and female children are the poorest in society, as they are denied opportunities and equal access to resources, even at the family level.
Explain the human poverty index (HPI)?
HPI is an indication of poverty in a nation. It is developed by the United Nation in addition to Human Development Index (HDI).
It was first reported as a part of the Human Deprivation Report in 1997 and in 2010 it was supplanted by UN Multidimensional Poverty Index.
HPI-I – Indicates the extent of Human Poverty in developing countries.
HPI-II – Indicates the extent of Human Poverty in developed countries.
It shows the extent of deprivation in society or country in terms of longevity, knowledge & decent standard of living.
Lack of longevity is expressed in the percentage of the population having the probability of not surviving up to the age of 40 years.
Adult illiteracy – Percentage of adults who are illiterate
Lack of Decent standard of Living:
% of the population does not have access to improved sources of water supply.
5 of children who are undernourished, who are underweight for age.
It is always measured in terms of Percentage (%)
Lack of Longevity- % up to 60 years. Adult Illiteracy- % of adults who are functionally illiterate.
Lack of decent standard of living- % of people whose income is less than 50% of the medium income of the society.
Social Exclusion- % of people who remain unemployed on a long-term basis (more than 12 months).
Human poverty Index 2020
It is released as “The 2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)“
As per the Human poverty Index, 2020 with respect to India – “Four countries halved their MPI value. India (2005/2006–2015/2016) did so nationally and among children and had the biggest reduction in the number of multidimensionally poor people (273 million).”
The 2018 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development reaffirmed the importance of multi-dimensional approaches to poverty eradication that go beyond economic deprivation.
The 2018 MPI answers the call to better measure progress against Sustainable Development Goal 1 – to end poverty in all its forms; and opens a new window into how poverty – in all its dimensions – is changing.
With the 2018 estimates, the MPI measures acute multidimensional deprivations in 105 countries covering 77 per cent of the global population.