Reproductive system Tnpsc

Reproduction in Human Male Reproduction System

The male reproductive system includes the primary sex organs and accessory organs. The primary sex organs are the testis. The accessory organs are seminal vesicles and prostate glands urethra and male sex organ.

The pair of the testis is located in the scrotal sac. Each testis contains a coiled mass of tubules known as seminiferous tubules. Seminiferous tubules produce sperms.

The process of the formation of sperms is known as spermatogenesis. The interstitial cells of the testis also secrete male sex hormones are called androgens. The appearance of male sexual characters such as the growth of beard, moustache, body hair, hoarse voice are controlled by androgens.

The cells of the testis provide nourishment to the developing sperms called Sertoli cells. The sperms are delivered through Vas Deference. Vas deferens which unites with the urethra.

The common passage for both sperms and urine is the urethra. The sperms are released in a fluid called seminal fluid. The fluid provides nutrition and helps in the transport of sperms.

Four parts of sperm are the head, neck, midpiece, and tail. The condensed nucleus contains a haploid set(n) of chromosomes and a terminal acrosome called the head. The acrosome is a Golgi apparatus.

The hyaluronidase and proteolytic enzymes are present in acrosomes. The neck contains near proximal and distal centriole. The distal centriole is continuous with the axial filament. The midpiece contains these spirally coiled mitochondria.

The remnants of cytoplasm that propel the sperm in a liquid medium are called the tail. The first to observe and draw sperm cells was Anton van Leeuwenhoek.

human reproductive system how it works
Human Male Reproduction System By Male_anatomy.png: FAQderivative work: Tsaitgaist (talk) – *[[:File:Male_anatomy.png|Male_anatomy.png], CC BY-SA 3.0,

Female reproductive system

human female reproductive system By BruceBlaus. When using this image in external sources it can be cited staff (2014). “Medical gallery of Blausen Medical 2014”. WikiJournal of Medicine 1 (2). DOI:10.15347/wjm/2014.010. ISSN 2002-4436. – Own work, CC BY 3.0,

The female reproductive system consists of ovaries and accessory organs. Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and Female reproductive organs are called accessory organs. The ovary produces an egg every 28 days. The production of the egg every 28 days is called the menstrual cycle.

The producers and female sex hormones come on oestrogen and progesterone. Each ovary consists of follicle cells that produce the ovum by a process known as oogenesis. A hollow thick-walled muscular organ formed of three layers called the uterus.

The fertilized ovum is embedded and harassed in the uterus. The muscular tube which connects the cervix and the external genitalia is called the Female reproductive organ. The female reproductive organ serves to receive sperms and also a birth canal.

The sex hormone responsible for oogenesis and for the appearance of female secondary sexual characters is oestrogen. The development of breasts, growth of hair, feminine voice, etc are secondary sexual characteristics.

The egg of a human is alecithal. Alecithal means egg without yolk. The human egg contains cortical granules and yolk platelets. The egg is surrounded by three membranes which are the Vitelline membrane, zona pellucida, and corona radiata.

The ovum is surrounded immediately by a thin transparent membrane called the Vitelline membrane. A thick transparent membrane above the vitelline membrane is called zona pellucida.

The outermost thick membrane formed by the follicle cells is called corona radiate. The rhythmic series of changes in the female sex organs that occur for about 28 days throughout the reproductive life of a woman from puberty to menopause is called my menstrual cycle.

after ovulation, the mature ovum is brought to the fallopian tube and get fertilized. When the ovum is not fertilized, the ovum along with the uterine wall is ruptured and discharged with blood by a process called mensuration.

The three-phase of the menstrual cycle are the 1st phase, 2nd phase, and 3rd phase. The first phase is known as the follicular phase. The menstrual cycle from the 5th day to the 14th day is known as the follicular phase.

The second phase is known as the premenstrual phase of the luteal phase. The menstrual cycle of the 15th day 28 th day is known as the premenstrual phase. The third phase is the menstrual phase.

The menstrual cycle from the first day to the fifth day is known as the menstrual phase. The follicular phase is initiated by the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) of the pituitary.

During the follicular phase, primary ovarian follicles begin to grow and the mature Graafian follicles burst and release to ovum into the fallopian tube called ovulation. The luteal phase is influenced by the Luteinising Hormone (LH) of the pituitary gland.

After the release of the ovum, the ruptured part of graffian follicle is transformed into a transitory endocrine gland called the Corpus luteum. The Corpus luteum secretes the pregnancy hormone called progesterone.

The thickness of the endometrium and prepare the uterus to receive fertilized ovum are the functions of the progesterone hormone. The decline in progesterone and oestrogen initiates the shedding of unfertilized egg and endometrium with severe bleeding in a process called mensun or menstruation.

At the termination of mensuration, the Corpus luteum is converted into a scar tissue called Corpus Albicans.


  1. What are the Accessory organs of the uterus?

Fimbriae, feathery ends of the fallopian tube and the ovaries are called Uterine Adnexa or accessory organ of the Uterus.

2. What are accessory organs of the female reproductive system?

The accessory organs of the female reproductive system are fallopian tubes (uterine tube or oviducts), uterus, and va-gina.

3. Is human eggs are alecithal or microlecithal?

The human egg is microlecithal. The fact is not an egg is alecithal that is the absence of yolk. As all eggs of all animals always carry yolk.

4.Alecithal Egg?

Alecithal Egg is the condition where the egg does not contain yolk. Eg: The egg of eutherian mammals.

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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