The year 1905 onward was called the era of extremism in the Indian National Movement. The aggressive nationalist believed that success could be achieved only by bold means.
Important extremist leaders such as Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Causes for the Rise of Extremism
The only success of the moderates is the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian council Act (1892). The famine and plague of 1896-97. The poor economic condition of people. Poor treatment of Indians in South Africa on the basis of colour.
Japan won the battle with Russia in 1904-05, this encouraged Indian extremists. The immediate reason for the rise of extremism was the reactionary rule of Lord Curzon. Lord Curzon pass the Calcutta Corporation Act (1899) that reduced the Indian’s control over this local body.
The Universities Act (1904) reduced the elected members in the University bodies and also reduced the autonomy of the universities and made their government departments. Lord Curzon reduced the people’s freedom through the Sedition Act and the Official Secrets act.
Also, the most important one was the partition of Bengal (1905).
Main Goals of Extremist
The main objective was to attain Swaraj or complete independence.
Militant method of Extremist
The extremist had no faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. By forceful means by which the British had taken control of India. Not cooperating with the British government by boycotting government courts, schools and colleges.
Promotion of Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods. Introduction and promotion of national education.
Leaders of the Extremist
- The extremist leaders were led by Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Aurobindo Ghosh.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
- Bal Gangadhar tilak is considered as the real founder of the anti-British movement in India. Bal Gangadhar Tilak known as Lokamanya attacked the British through his weeklies The Mahratta and the Kesari. He was jailed twice by the British in 1908. He was deported to Mandalay for six years.
- He set up the home rule movement in 1916 at Poona and declared “Swaraj is my birthright and I will have it”.
Lala Lajpat Rai
- Lal Lajpat Rai is popularly known as the Lion of Punjab, played an important role in Swadesi Movement and founded the Indian Hole Rule League in the US in 1916.
- He was deported to Mandalay on the ground of sedition.
- Lala Lajpat Rai received fatal injuries while leading a procession against the Simon Commission and died on November 17, 1928.
Bipin Chandra Pal
- He was the founder of Journal ‘Bande Mataram’.
- He left for england during the arrest of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and he was associated with the Radical India House and also founded the Swaraj Journal.
1. Calcutta Corporation act 1899
As per this act. This act reduced the number of elected legislatures and increase the number of nominated officials to deprive the Indians of Self-Governance. Lord Curzon, the Viceroy passes this act.
2. Official secrets act 1904
This act is for ensuring secrecy and confidentiality in governance, primarily on national security and espionage issues. The official secret Act was passed by Lord Curzon, then Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905. This act states that any action that involves helping the enemy state against India are strongly condemned.
3. Mention the movement led by Bal Gangadhar tilak against the partition of Bengal?
After the partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon, to weaken the nationalist movements. Bal Gangadhar Tilak encouraged the Swadeshi movement and the Boycott movement. Swadeshi Movement was officially proclaimed on August 7, 1905, at the Calcutta Town Hall in Bengal