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Agriculture cropping pattern in India Upsc

Agricultural pattern in India Tnpsc

Agricultural pattern in India

Cropping pattern in India refers to three different agricultural seasons, namely Kharif, Rabi and Zaid. The Kharif season is started by the Southwest Monsoon, which helps in producing tropical crops such as rice, cotton, bajra, jowar etc.

Similarly Rabi season starts in October

The agriculture and allied sectors include dairy, sheep, goat, poultry, piggery, fisheries, horticulture, sericulture, etc.

India has three cropping Seasons namely:

  • Rabi
  • Kharif
  • Zaid


The rabi crops are sown in the winter. In India, winter is from October to December and it is harvested in Summer from April to June.

Important rabi crops are Wheat Barley, peas, gram, and Mustard.

Important regions where these crops are cultivated are Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, etc for Wheat Production and also for other rabi crops.

The success of these crops is due to the availability of precipitation during the winter months because of the western temperate cyclones.

In Punjab, Haryana, Western UP, Rajasthan, etc. the success of these crops is due to the success of the green revolution.


Kharif crops are sown with the onset of monsoon in various regions of the country and harvested in September-October.

Important crops grown in this season are Paddy, Maize, Jowar, Bajra, arhar(Tur), Moong, Urad, Cotton, groundnut, jute, and soybean.

Kharif-based regions are Assam, West Bengal, Coastal Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Maharashtra, particularly along the Konkan coast, UP, and Bihar.

Paddy(Rice) recently became famous in Punjab and Haryana.

In Assam, West Bengal, and Odisha, 3 crops of Paddy are grown in a year and they are Aus, Aman, and Boro.

There is another season which is in between the Rabi and Kharif. It is called Zaid Season. The crops that are cultivated during Zaid are Watermelon, Muskmelon, Cucumber, Vegetables, and Fodder Crops.


Agriculture is a method of production of food, fodder, cash crops such as Fiber, and raising plants and animals (Livestock). Agriculture employs more than 50% of the national population directly or indirectly.

Agriculture provides 25% of the national income.

Factors Influencing Agriculture

Relief, Climate, and Soil, Institutional factors such as the size of farms, land tenure, and land reforms, Technological factors such as HYV (High Yielding a Variety of seeds), artificial or chemical insecticides, pesticides, and fertilizers and Infrastructure factors such as Irrigation, credit, market insurance, storage facilities, Power, and Transport.


  • https://ncert.nic.in/ncerts/l/jess104.pdf