Major tribes of India and their locations Upsc

Adivasi: Indigenous People of India

India is one of the large homes for the Indigenous people, who haven’t been touched by the modern world. Also, this country has the largest tribal population in the World with 84.4 Million tribal people.

Indigenous people or Tribal people In India are called Adivasis. Adivasis happens to be the poorest in the country. Adivasis still rely on Hunting, agriculture, fishing, etc for their life.

In this country, there are more than 50 tribal groups, most of them belonging to Negrito, Australoid, and Mongoloid stocks.

Major Tribes of India

Tribes of India
Lepcha. Toda, Rava, Khasi, Limbu, Garo, Naga, Chakma are major Mongoloid stocks in India
  • Major Tribes of India are:
    • Gonds
    • Santhals
    • Khasis
    • Angamis
    • Bhils
    • Bhutias
    • Great Andamanese


Found mostly in the Gond forest of central India. Gonds are one of the largest tribal groups in the world. They are highly influenced by Hindu culture and traditions.


They are the third-largest tribe in India. Found mostly in West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, and Assam.

Santhals belong to the pre-Aryan period. They are great fighters from the British times.


They are famously called the bow men of Rajasthan.Bhils are a widely distributed tribe in the nation.

They form the largest tribe in the whole of South Asia. Bhils are divided into central or pure bills and eastern or Rajput Bhils.


They are mainly found in Jharkhand. They are mostly found in West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, and Chattisgarh. Munda refers to the headman of a village.

Their main occupation is Hunting.


They are found in the Khasi Jaintia hills in Meghalaya. Also, found in Punjab, UP, Manipur, West Bengal, and J&K.

A large population is found in Meghalaya.


They belong to the extreme northeastern part of the nation in Nagaland. Their population is 12 million.

They are famous for Woodcraft and artwork. Angami main festival is Sekrenyi.


They are of Tibetian origin. They have migrated to Sikkim around the 16th century. They are known as Lachenpas and Lachungpas in the Northern part of Sikkim.

They occupy 14% of Sikkim’s population. Their main festivals are Losar and Losoong.


They inhabit the Nallamalai hills, which is part of Nagarjuna Sagar Tiger Sanctuary in Andra Pradesh.

They are mainly found in Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, Praksham, Guntur, and Kurnool.

Great Andamanese

They are Negrito tribe inhabitants in the Andaman Islands. They form the largest population in these Islands.

As per census, their population is limited to very few individuals.

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* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.
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