Article 16 (4) of Indian Constitution

This will not prevent any sort of appointment or reservation among backward communities if sufficient representation is not provided. In India, inequality is existing due to the Varna System. According to the Indian Constitution, states which are having low technology or inadequate natural resources can make their own special policies for holistic advancement. In accordance … Read more

Rashtrakutas Administration and Society Upsc

Rashtrakutas Administration and Society Upsc

Administration The Rashtrakuta Empire was divided into several provinces called rashtras under the control of Rashtrapati. They were further divided into vishayas or districts governed by vishayapatis. The subsequent subdivision was bhukti consisting of fifty to 70 villages under the control of bhogapatis. These officers were directly appointed by the central government. The village administration … Read more

O Captain my captain poem Tnpsc

O Captain my captain poem Tnpsc

O Captain! My Captain! Our fearful trip is done, The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won, The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring; -4 But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops o … Read more

curved mirrors ray diagrams

Curved Mirrors There are many types of curved mirrors such as spherical and parabolic mirrors. The most widely used curve is a spherical mirror. The hemispherical spoon is also a curved mirror, it has an inner and outer surface. One side of the spoon is a concave mirror and another side is a convex mirror. … Read more

Affirmative action in political science

Affirmative action in political science

Affirmative Action The principle of affirmative action is to promote societal equality through the preferential treatment of socially and economically disadvantaged people. Often, these people are disadvantaged for historical reasons, such as oppression or slavery. Support for affirmative action has sought to achieve a range of goals: bridging inequalities in employment and pay; increasing access … Read more

Discrimination – Social Basis Theory

As socio–psychologists describe, Human beings identify themselves as part of their group. They felt prestigious and energetic only when they are recognized as a part of their own group. What discrimination means is that out-grouping their own members from the membership of their group or banning their members from accessing natural resources. Indeed, wealth is … Read more

Social justice and equality explain the concept

Economic equality can be identified by an individual’s income and the value of the property, he possesses in society. Otherwise, the gap between rich people community and poor may indicate the status of economic equality. Further, by calculating the number of people under the poverty line, we may draw strong inferences and resolutions. This kind … Read more

just distribution of benefits and burdens

When we agreed to the idea that different people in a society must be treated differently, the subsequent question would be who and how we can ensure Justice. Government can and will enact laws to facilitate the just distribution of resources to individuals within a society. Laws simply pave the way for the fair distribution … Read more

Tamil nadu education reforms

New Education – New Requisites The educational system which we had in Ancient India was discriminatory. People were permitted to undergo education on the basis of their own caste. After the introduction of a new education system in modern India, the marginalized communities are not allowed in the mainstream. In south India, new or modern … Read more

Justice Party movement Upsc

Justice Party movement Upsc

The Indian National Congress, a major political organization in India at that time, was dominated by Brahmins who refused to consider the demands of non-brahmin members. The leader of the non-brahmin in the Madras Presidency started to think of a non-brahmin political organization. The political reforms after the First World War and the formation of … Read more

* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.