Zener diode characteristics and applications

Zener diode characteristics and applications

Zener diode is a reverse-biased heavily doped silicon diode named after the invention by C.Zener. Zener diode is specially designed to operate in the breakdown region. The doping level of silicon diodes can be varied as per breakdown voltages needed from 2V to 1000 V.  The maximum reverse bias applied before entering into the Zener … Read more

What is rectification in electronics?

What is rectification in electronics?

Rectification The process of converting alternating current into the direct current is called Rectification. There are two types of rectifiers, one is a half-wave rectifier and the other is a full-wave rectifier. Half-wave Rectifier Circuit The circuit consists of a transformer, a p-n junction diode, and a resistor. In a half-wave rectifier circuit, either a … Read more

How many types of Semiconductors?

How many types of Semiconductors

There are two types of Semiconductors. They are Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors. Types of Semiconductors Intrinsic Semiconductor Extrinsic Semiconductor Intrinsic Semiconductor A semiconductor in its pure form without impurity is called an intrinsic semiconductor. Here impurity means any other atom in the crystal lattice. Each Silicon atom has four electrons in the outermost orbit and … Read more

Valency meaning in chemistry

The electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom are called Valence electrons. From the Bohr-Bury scheme, we find the outermost shell of an atom can accommodate a maximum of 8 electrons. Also, the atoms of the elements show little chemical activity if its outermost shell is completely filled. Also can be said that … Read more

What is the cause of Earth’s magnetism?

Earth’s Magnetism Earth has been considered or imagined by scientists as a big magnetic dipole. Still, the position of the Earth’s magnetic poles is not well explained in the earth. The south pole of the imaginary magnet inside the earth is found near the geographic north pole and the north pole of the earth’s magnet … Read more

Properties of magnets and their interactions

Properties of Magnets Attractive Property Reflective Property Directive Property Attractive Property A magnet always attracts objects like iron, nickel, cobalt. With the experiment with iron filling the can conclude that the Iron filling gets attracted near the ends of the magnets. These ends are called as Poles of a Magnet. The attractive property is more … Read more

Total internal reflection ray diagram

Total Internal Reflection When the angle of incidence in the denser medium increases the angle of refraction also increases and it reaches a maximum value of r = 90° for a particular angle of incidence value. This angle of incidence is called the critical angle. The angle of incidence at which the angle of refraction … Read more

Speed of light in different mediums list

Speed of light The rate of Light is 3 x 106 m/s. The light’s speed in air is 3×108 m/s and the light’s in common glass is 2*10^8 m/s. That is precisely 3,00000 km per second in a vacuum. Speed of Light in Different Media Light travels maximum in a vacuum and with different speeds … Read more

Reflection and refraction of light diagram

Reflection and refraction of light diagram

Refraction of Light  When the light is from one medium to medium with different optical densities, the path of light gets bent or deviated from the original path. This phenomenon is called the Refraction of Light. Causes of Refraction of Light Light rays get deviated from the original path when entering into another medium with … Read more

Concave mirror reflection ray diagram

Concave mirror reflection ray diagram

The parallel rays of light from the sun are focussed at a point using a concave mirror which is used to burn paper from the above diagram. In the concave mirror, as we bring the object closer, the image gets bigger. An Erected Magnified image is seen. At some positions, there is no image that … Read more

* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.